In February 2011, the first law adopted in Romania has been The National Education Law, i.e. Law No. 1/2011. The new legal provisions address all major aspects of education, including the rights and duties of teachers at any levels. One of the most important decisions in the new law is that, in order to accede to a teaching position in the academic system, one is required to hold a Doctor’s Degree. The old legal provisions did not make this condition mandatory. For this reason, legal provisions governing the doctorate are highly momentous and presented in this study. Among the topics to be found herein, the readers will recognize: the duties and rights of doctoral students, doctoral supervisors, the duration of doctoral studies, the degree awarded, the duties of the National Council for Degrees, University Titles and Credentials (CNATDCU), etc. We would also like to point out the fact that, despite their novelty, these regulations are not without any fault and should not be taken lightly, as they are prone to a multitude of interpretations and criticism.