The origin of elevation structure of the Cerová Vrchovina Mts. was connected with active uplift caused by upwelling of a pre-Cenozoic basement or bulging due to volcanic activity during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The erosion-denudation processes and changing tectonic regime with reorientation of the main tension axes from NW–SE to NE–SW are considered to be as the main factors of the proposed evolution model of the Cerová vrchovina elevation. A significant role during the evolution played erosion-resistant basalt sheets and lava flows which prevented erosion of soft Cenozoic sediments. Areas without the volcanic cover have been eroded into the deeper stratigraphic levels as evidenced by the inverse relief.