The use of renewable energy sources (biofuels), either as a component in the conventional fossil fuels, gasoline and diesel, or as a pure biofuel, contributes to energy saving and decrease of total CO2 emission. The use of bioethanol mixed with gasoline significantly decreases gasoline consumption and contributes to environment protection. One of the problems in the production of bioethanol is the availability of sugar and starch based feedstock used for its production. However, lignocellulosic feedstocks are becoming more significant in the production of bioethanol due to their availability and low cost. The aim of this study is to point out the advantages and shortcomings of pretreatment processes and hydrolyses of lignocellulosic feedstocks that precede their fermentation to bioethanol.