Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Indeed, individuals with plasma concentrations >20 mg/dL carry a 2-fold increased risk of developing CVD, accounting for ~25% of the population. Circulating levels of Lp(a) are remarkably resistant to common lipid lowering therapies, and there are currently no robust treatments available for reduction of Lp(a) apart from plasma apheresis, which is costly and labour intensive. The Lp(a) molecule is composed of two parts, an LDL/apoB-100 core and a unique glycoprotein, apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), both of which can interact with components of the coagulation cascade, inflammatory pathways, and cells of the blood vessel wall (smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC)). Therefore, it is of key importance to determine the molecular pathways by which Lp(a) exerts its influence on the vascular system in order to design therapeutics to target its cellular effects. This paper will summarise the role of Lp(a) in modulating cell behaviour in all aspects of the vascular system including platelets, monocytes, SMC, and EC.