One hundred and sixty preterm deliveries were done at our center in (1996-97). Classification according to etiology shows that 30% of these deliveries were due to PROM, and 13.75% had to be induced secondary to underling fetal or maternal indication, in 35.6% there were maternal or fetal pathology, and in 20.6% there were no recognized reason (idiopathic). The various etiologic factors were evaluated in 160 term deliveries as control group. The preterm deliveries had significantly higher rate. There were 40 cases of perinatal mortality that included 77% of total perinatal mortality in (1996-97). Acute lack of neonatal intensive care unit in Iran requires closer attention in the future.