Background Hypertriglyceridemia and postprandial hyperlipidemia is thought to play an important role in atherosclerosis, but to select patients at high-risk for cardiovascular diseases is difficult with triglycerides (TG) alone in these patients. Methods To predict postprandial hyperlipidemia without inconvenient test meal loading, we examined lipid concentrations before and after test meal loading and fasting adiponectin, and investigated which of these other than TG were significant during the fasting period in 45 healthy individuals (men: women, 26:19). Results TG, remnant-like particle-cholesterol and -triglyceride (RemL-C, RLP-C, and RLP-TG), and TG/apolipoprotein(apo)B were significantly elevated after loading and fasting values significantly and positively correlated with incremental area under the curve (iAUC) (r=0.80, r=0.79, r=0.63, r=0.58, r=0.54; p<0.0001). Fasting adiponectin positively correlated with fasting high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=0.43, p<0.005) and apoA-I (r=0.34, p<0.05), and negatively correlated with iAUC of TG, RemL-C, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and TG/apoB (r= 0.37, r= 0.41, r= 0.37, r= 0.36, r= 0.37; p<0.05). We constructed the model of multivariable linear regression analysis without fasting TG. In the sex-, BMI-, age-, and waist circumference-adjusted analysis of postprandial TG elevation 2 h after test meal loading in all participants, RemL-C, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and TG/apoB were significant factors, but adiponectin was not. Conclusion Fasting triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-related values, especially RemL-C, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and TG/apoB are useful predictors of postprandial hyperlipidemia in young healthy individuals. Although fasting adiponectin concentration correlated with the iAUCs for TG, RemL-C, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and TG/apoB, it was not a significant predictor of postprandial hyperlipidemia in multivariable linear regression analysis.