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Alterations of specific biomarkers of metabolic pathways in vascular tree from patients with Type 2 diabetes

DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-86

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Glycemic control, Metabolic pathways, Vascular system

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The atherosclerotic process in OPA from diabetic patients was associated with high expression levels of inflammatory, lipid metabolism and apoptotic biomarkers. The degree of glycemic control was associated with gene expression markers of apoptosis, lipid metabolism and antioxidants in FV. However, the effect of glycemic control on pro-atherosclerotic gene expression was very low in arteries with established atherosclerosis.Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are highly prevalent in the general population, affecting most adults over 60?years of age. Vascular endothelium has unique responses to hemodynamic forces. The flow and hemodynamic forces are not uniform in the vascular system. The endothelium of the vascular circulation is exposed to hemodynamic forces of greater magnitude than in other human tissues. Hemodynamic forces play an important role in vascular diseases, especially in the location of atheromas [1].The pathophysiology of arterial thrombosis is different from that of venous thrombosis. In the arteries there is altered endothelium-platelet adhesion, greatly influenced by hemodynamic forces, while the major factors for venous thrombosis are the phenomena of slow or stagnant blood flow, combined with hypercoagulability situations [2].Sustained flow with high shear stress upregulates gene and then protein expression in endothelial cells, which has a protective effect against the atherosclerotic process [3]. In the venous system, a disturbed flow leads to inflammation and venous thrombosis, and therefore the development of chronic vessel disease, such as peripheral arterial disease.Atherosclerosis is associated with processes such as inflammation [4] lipid metabolism [5], apoptosis [6] and the immune system responses [5]. Epidemiologic studies show a consistent association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease [7]. The influence of evaluating the atherosclerosis process according to the effect of tight glycemic control has been less convincing in clinical


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