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Heparanase induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promotes macrophage migration involving RAGE and PI3K/AKT pathway

DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-37

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These studies were carried out in Ana-1 macrophages. Macrophage viability was measured by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. HPA and AKT protein expression in macrophages are analysed by Western blotting and HPA mRNA expression by real time quantitative RT-PCR. Release of HPA was determined by ELISA. Macrophage migration was assessed by Transwell assays.HPA protein and mRNA were found to be increased significantly in AGEs-treated macrophages. Pretreatment with anti-HPA antibody which recognizes the nonenzymatic terminal of HPA prevented AGEs-induced AKT phosphorylation and macrophage migration. LY294002 (PI3k/AKT inhibitor) inhibited AGEs-induced macrophage migration. Furthermore, pretreatment with anti-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antibody attenuated AGEs-induced HPA expression, AKT phosphorylation and macrophage migration.These data indicate that AGEs-induced macrophage migration is dependent on HPA involving RAGE-HPA-PI3K/AKT pathway. The nonenzymatic activity of HPA may play a key role in AGEs-induced macrophage migration associated with inflammation in diabetic vascular complication.


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