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Association between dietary phylloquinone intake and peripheral metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes in elderly subjects at high cardiovascular risk

DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-7

Keywords: Vitamin K, Inflammation, Insulin resistance, Diabetes

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Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain). We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers.In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (?15.0%), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (?12.9%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (?17.6%), IL-6 (?27.9%), leptin (?10.3%), TNF (?26.9%) and visfatin (?24.9%) plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p<0.05).These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. webcite as ISRCTN35739639Vitamin K (K1 or phylloquinone and K2 or menaquinones) is recognized as an essential element in the synthesis of carboxylate clotting factors involved in prothrombotic disorders and cardiovascular disease. More recently, it has been reported that vitamin K also participates in the gamma-carboxylation reactions of other proteins such as osteocalcin, and may also exert a protective role against age-related bone loss [1,2]. However, additional roles of vitamin K, independent of these effects have been described [3]. Thus, there is evidence that both osteocalcin and vitamin K may have a potential beneficial role in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes (T2DMs) [4-7]. Since inflammation underlies all these chr


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