The article examines the current state of the views of the political actors in integration processes in South America, and which represent the basis for the evolution of these processes. Using this perspective, the author analyses the recent history of Mercosur and Unasur. As a second objective, the article examines the role Brazil has played in the evolution of these two initiatives in recent years. To achieve these objectives, the author begins by presenting the opinions of the region’s political actors on regional integration, defined by means of common elements. The author then goes on to present the main characteristics of the recent evolution of Mercosur and Unasur. The third part analyze the role Brazil has played in this new scenario. Finally, the conclusion summarises the two initiatives and highlights the likely prospects for Dilma Rousseff’s government in relation to Brazil’s policy in the region.