The aim of this study was to verify the relations between perceived parental styles and drug use by adolescents, as well as to test the predictive power of the parental styles for the consumption of these psychoactive substances. For that, an inventory about the use of drugs and a scale of parental styles were applied in 649 students of public and private schools, with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD=1.6), 55% female. The results showed a higher frequency of drug users among students of elementary schools and of public schools and among those who presented a perception of negligent parental style. The variables age, type of school, parental demandingness and responsiveness composed a predictive model for drug use. The results pointed out the importance of the authoritative style for the prevention and of the negligent style for the risk of drug use.