Translations have always been the starting point for nations in the adventure of their participation to civilization. So that, all civilizations have experienced some translation activities and a period of translation at the beginning of their developmental periods. Those nations that have deep and intense relations with translations have also been very fast in the path of civilization progress. The Ottoman Empire was not able to succeed translation activities well enough and of course the recent moves were also not sufficient. The movement for the modernization of the Ottoman Empire that lasted for a period of more than 100 years was carried out with intense translation activities in every field. These translation activities in due course have turned into the production of western-oriented cultural, literary and political works. Western-oriented movements formed the most important idea or thought in the transformation of the Ottoman Empire to a democratic republic. The very early years of the Republic of Turkey experienced also translations made entirely from the Western cultures that shaped areas such as culture, literature, politics, law etc. Although translations play an important turning point for nations, the translation method also reveals the goal in which direction the nations will carry on their developments. By analyzing the aims and methods of translations, it is possible to see what role translations have played or will play in the transformation process of nations. Actually the translation method and aim of shaping our culture of 'translation movements in the Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey', which is actually our topic, will reveal the social effects and contributions of translations to changes in our country.