Introduction. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients maintained with hemodialysis have more severe anemia than patients with other kidney diseases. Objective. The aim of the study was to compare the improvement of anemia in BEN patients and those with other kidney diseases during treatment with human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo). Methods. The study involved 240 patients on regular hemodialysis for more than one year. Out of them 146 had BEN and 94 other kidney diseases (21 glomerulonephritis, 20 hypertension, 18 diabetes, 10 policystic kidney disease, 5 obstructive nephropathy, 18 other diseases). Treatment with rHuEpo was carried out according to European guidelines for the management of anemia. Results. Patients with BEN were older and were less frequently treated with ACEi than patients with other kidney diseases. At the onset of the study mean hemoglobin level (109.6±22.3 vs. 112.7±11.3 g/l) was significantly lower, but serum ferritin level and rHuEpo dose (65.4±22.3 vs. 57.5±22.5 U/kg/week) were significantly higher in BEN patients than in others. In prospective four months study these differences in hemoglobin levels and rHuEpo doses maintained. The rate of anemia improvement was examined in 15 BEN patients and 10 patients with other kidney diseases at the beginning of rHuEpo treatment. No difference in the rate of anemia improvement was found between the two groups but higher rHuEpo doses were used in BEN patients. Conclusion. Patients with BEN on regular hemodialysis had more severe anemia and required higher rHuEpo doses for maintaining target hemoglobin level.