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The Evaluation of Agronomic Traits of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Mutants

Keywords: Durum wheat , mutant , breeding , yield , yield components

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Abstract:

Genetic variability induced by mutagen treatments has maintained in the generations. The increases in variability resulted in the selection of superior mutant types for yield and yield components are used successfully in wheat breeding. The aims of the study were: (I) to select mutant lines with good yielding properties by comparing mutant lines with mother cultivars for agronomic traits in the M4 and M5 generations and (ii) to advance the selected lines to the following generations. The lines used in the experiment were selected from mutant populations of durum wheat cultivars (Sofu and Gediz-75) treated with etil-methane-sulfonate (EMS). The mutants were identified by visual screening for short straw, long spike and confirmed by measuring some characters of theoretical and practical interest in the M2 and M3 generations. The mutants with good yielding properties as compared to the mother cultivars were transferred to the M4 generation. Eighteen of these lines were from cv. Gediz-75 and twelve were from cv. Sofu. The experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with three replications. There were several mutant lines with higher or lower means than those of mother cultivars. Responses of the mutants depended on the environmental conditions. It is possible to select higher yielding mutant lines with also some important agronomic traits. Selection of high yielding mutant lines could be performed in the M5 and these lines as a breeding material transferred in the yield experiments. Thus, number of mutant lines can be decreased considerably by early selections in the M4 and M5. Mutant lines with desirable characters varied with cultivars. Gdem-1, 2, 7 lines of cv. Gediz-75 and Sfem-1, 2, 3 lines of cv. Sofu showed a better agronomic performance than the others

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