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The association between Type D personality and the metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in a University-based outpatient lipid clinic

DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-105

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New consecutive patients referred to an outpatient lipid clinic for evaluation of possible metabolic syndrome were eligible for inclusion in the study. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) diagnostic criteria. Type D personality was assessed with the DS-14 scale. Multivariate regression techniques were used to investigate the association between personality and metabolic syndromes adjusting for a number of medical and psychiatric confounders. Three hundred and fifty-nine persons were screened of whom 206 met the diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome ("cases") and 153 did not ("control group"). The prevalence of type D personality was significantly higher in the cases as compared to the control group (44% versus 15% respectively, p < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis the presence of Type D personality was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome independently of other clinical factors, anxiety and depressive symptoms (odds ratio 3.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.90 - 6.33).Type D personality was independently associated with the metabolic syndrome in this cross-sectional study. The potential implications of this finding, especially from a clinical or preventive perspective, should be examined in future research.Over the recent years, there is a growing interest of the impact of various psychosocial factors in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality [1]. Several prospective studies suggested that common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in either healthy persons or patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) [1]. Similarly psychosocial factors, such as enhanced 'job strain' as well as the lack of social support, have been proposed as risk factors for CHD. In this context, it is also noted that specific patterns of personality characteristics have been found to independently predict CHD morbidity and m


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