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Water Recycling and Reuse by Using Wetland

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: Scarcity of water is a challenge worldwide because of growing population and Industrialization. Billions of people have insufficient access to safe drinking water. Ground water levels are falling and all type of water bodies like river, lake and oceans are getting polluted. Many issues resulting in water scarcity could be avoided with better water management. A better option is reuse and recycles the wastewater for secondary purposes like toilet flushing, gardening, lawn and irrigation. Wastewater has high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and contains Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), alkaline in nature. Conventional wastewater treatment goes through primary, secondary and tertiary treatment which is expensive to build, operate and maintain. Wastewater should be treated & reused such that treatment should be economical, natural and not affecting the environment. The best option is to provide onsite wastewater treatment by using geology of wetland for clean & hygienic villages. Wetlands are parts of earth’s surface between terrestrial and aquatic system. Wetlands are generally shallow in depth which includes water, soil and vegetation. There are two types of Wetlands like Natural and Constructed wetland. Selection of location of natural wetlands is dependent on various geological properties. In natural wetland, control on process is difficult but in constructed wetland, we can control the process of treatment. Constructed Wetland is an artificial wastewater treatment, consisting of shallow ponds (<1 meter depth). Water Hyacinth (Eichronia crassipes) is available locally It is large, bulbous floating plants with extensive root system, perennial aquatic plant with rounded, upright, shiny green leaves and spikes of lavender flower. It is good in nutrient removal from wastewater through the harvesting, prevents the growth of algae and maintaining pH value . The root zones of plants develop into a diverse ecology which includes bacteria, fungi, predators and filter feeders for creating aerobic conditions. Constructed wetlands provide habitat for wildlife and helps to improve aesthetic value.

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