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Application of High Power Ultrasound in Drying of Fruits and Vegetables

Keywords: ulstrasound

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Abstract:

Ultrasound is a sound frequency in the range between 18 and 100 kHz that is above hearing of the human ear. High power ultrasound means application of intensities higher than 1 W cm–2 (usually in the range between I=10–1000Wcm–2). High power and low frequency ultrasound (f = 20 to 100 kHz) is considered as “power ultrasound” because its application causes cavitation and is applied in the food industry. High power ultrasound is applied for degassing of liquid food, for induction of oxidation/reduction reactions, for extraction of enzymes and proteins, for inactivation of enzymes and induction of nucleation for crystallization. Ultrasound is anticipating heat transfer; it is used for emulsifying, sterilization, extraction, degassing, filtrating, drying and induction of oxidation. Conventional hot air drying is a very energy- and cost-intensive process. Drying is a simultaneous operation of heat and mass exchange that is followed by phase changes. Application of different pretreatments, like osmotic dehydration, ultrasound and ultrasound assisted osmotic dehydration has shown different effects on fruits and vegetables. When the high intensity acoustic energy is passing through solid material, it causes several fast and successive compressions and rarefactions with speeds that depend on the frequency applied. Thus, material is exposed to a series of exchangeable squeezing and relaxations, very like continuous squeezing and releasing of the sponge. This mechanism known as "rectified diffusion" is very important in acoustic drying and migration of water. Application of ultrasound as a pretreatment has shown great influence on reducing afterward hot air drying thereby reducing total drying time. It is also shown that pretreatment before drying facilitates better mass transfer and water diffusivity than osmotic dehydration. Quality of the product after drying is better because ultrasound pretreatment is applied at room temperature thus reducing deteriorating alterations and nutritive loss of compounds in fruits and vegetables.In this paper, the basic theory of ultrasound has been described. In the figures, the range of sound by frequency is described, as is the amplitude of ultrasound and its effect on the material also l, the wavelength and attenuation coefficient have been explained. The most common usage of power ultrasound as probe type of high intensity ultrasound set system with piezoelectric transducer have been introduced as a system for ultrasound drying. When the ultrasound wave passes through material the basic effect occurs. It is called cavitation a

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