PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between gallstones/cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We designed a retrospective study including all the patients with different cancers treated in our surgical unit from 1995 until 2010. We analyzed 1696 patients: 1072 with colorectal cancer, 404 with gastric cancer, 119 with pancreatic cancer, 11 with gallbladder cancer and 70 with renal cancer. RESULTS: Gallstones were significantly associated with colon cancer (8.8%) than with gastric (3%) or renal cancer (2.2%) – P=0.001, respectively P=0.04. Cholecystectomy was also significantly associated with colon cancer (10.8%) than with gastric (8.2%), pancreatic (1.7%) or renal cancer (5.6%) – P=0.06, P=0.01, respectively P=0.11. We found a statisticaly significant correlation between biliary lithiasis (gallstones and cholecystectomy) and right colon cancer: P=0.01 and respectively P=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Biliary lithiasis is associated with colorectal cancer. The risk is higher for the right colon neoplasms than for left colon or rectal cancers.