Objective of the study: Prevention of acute pancreatitis after diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Material and Methods. Analysis of the results of diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP, of the patients treated at Saratov Regional clinical hospital f during the period from 2006 to 2010. Results, lincrease in pancreatic amylase levels in blood above 50 U/l till ERCP is a risk factor for development of acute pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Conclusion. The above-stated follows to the background of increased pancreatic amylase levels in blood, performance of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography led to the development of acute pancreatitis.