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Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-237

Keywords: Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Perceived stress, Anxiety, Depression, Students, Ethiopia

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Abstract:

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used.The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score?>?5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality.A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health.Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. Although the direct benefits of sleep is not well quantified across many populations, it is understood that sleep deprivation has serious health consequences [1]. The quality of sleep is a measure of both the quantitative and qualitative components of sleep. The quantitative component includes the duration of sleep while the qualitative component is a subjective measure of the depth and feeling of restfulness upon awakening [2].Reductions in sleep duration and sleep quality, across populations, has been linked to changes in lifestyle, increasing use of technology and increased work and social dem

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