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Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-39

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Abstract:

Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed.The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.Wheat grains are a major source of human food. Desirable grain-fill traits for bread wheat include high rates of starch production for yield, and high protein content for bread-making. However, there is an undesirable trade-off between yield and protein content that is determined by genetics and environment [1-5]. A better understanding of the role of the amyloplast in endosperm metabolism may help to understand and ameliorate this trade-off [6].Some aspects of the regulation of starch and protein accumulation in cereal grains are understood. Prior to the grain-fill stage, yield is increased by increasing the number of tillers, heads and kernels through genetics, fertilization and water supply. During grain-fill, yield is determined largely by starch accumulation. Starch accumulation appears to be mainly sink-limited, whereas protein accumulation is source-limited [7-9]. Manipulation of the sucrose supply to the grain does not have a big effect on starch accumulation, and CO2 fixation apparently is more than adequate to maintain good rates of grain-fill. In contrast, the nitrogen supply greatly affects protein accumulation and kernels are

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