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BVDV and BHV-1 Infections in Dairy Herds in Northern and Northeastern Thailand

DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-45-181

Keywords: BVDV, BHV-1, bulk milk, prevalence, Thailand.

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Based on our experiences and on these results we are convinced that this process can continue if there is awareness of herd biosecurity. This is especially important in the context of a future intensification of the dairy production.Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) are well-known, important pathogens of cattle that give rise to substantial economic losses due to reproductive failures and increased calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. These pathogens have a worldwide distribution and tend to be endemic in most populations, although national and regional variations occur (for BVDV review see [21,14,18]; for BHV-1 review see [11,17,31]).Vaccination has been the conventional way to control or reduce losses caused by BVDV and BHV-1 for the last 4–5 decades [7,17]. The number of licensed vaccines on the market is vast and they are widely used. The use of vaccines may reduce economic losses caused by clinical disease, but does not appear to result in reduction of the prevalence of either BVDV or BHV-1 infections [34,25]. The introduction of gene-deleted vaccines was considered a breakthrough for the control of BHV-1 [31]. During 1998–1999 a live attenuated gE-deleted marker vaccine provided the basis for a compulsory control programme in the Netherlands. However, a severe outbreak of BVDV type 2 on several dairy farms, induced by contaminated gE-deleted marker vaccine, was a drawback that illustrated the potential risks with the use of live vaccines [3]. During the last decades eradication programmes against BVDV and BHV-1, without the use of vaccines, have been implemented in some European countries. These have been based on identification and elimination of carrier animals, together with increased herd biosecurity. The national BVD programmes in the Scandinavian countries, as well as the regional programmes in a few other countries in Europe, have had success with control of BVDV and are aiming towards eradi


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