A revision of the Hylodesmum laxum complex is made on the basis of an analysis of morphological variations. Four species, viz., H. leptopus, H. laterale, H. densum, H. laxum, and one subspecies, H. laxum subsp. lateraxum, are recognized. Their diagnostic characters are discussed, and a key to them is provided. Hylodesmum laxum subsp. falfolium (H. Ohashi) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill is reduced to synonymy of H. laxum subsp. laxum.