All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Sensors  2010 

Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

DOI: 10.3390/s100100544

Keywords: multispectral, laser sensing, laser imaging, spectral imaging, spectroscopy, chemical detection, semiconductor lasers, mid-infrared lasers

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO). These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers.


[1]  Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging; Salzer, R., Siesler, H.W., Eds.; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2009.
[2]  Chang, C.I. Hyperspectral Imaging: Techniques for Spectral Detection and Classification; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2003.
[3]  Levenson, R.M.; Mansfield, J.R. Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: Slices of life. Cytometry A 2006, 69, 748–758.
[4]  Lidar—Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere; Weitkamp, C., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2005.
[5]  Swim, C.; Vanderbeek, R.G.; Emge, D.; Wong, A. Overview of chem-bio sensing. Proc. SPIE 2006, 6218, 621802–621809.
[6]  Warren, R.E.; Vanderbeek, R.G.; Ahl, J.L. Detection and classification of atmospheric arerosols using multi-wavelength LWIR LIDAR. Proc. SPIE 2009, 7304, doi:10.1117/12.818694.
[7]  Gimmestad, G.G. Differential-Absorption Lidar for Ozone and Industrial Emissions. In Lidar—Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere; Weitkamp, C., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2005.
[8]  Weibring, P.; Smith, J.N.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S. Development and testing of a frequency-agile optical parametric oscillator system for differential absorption lidar. Rev. Sci. Instrum 2003, 74, 4478–4492.
[9]  Prasad, C.R.; Kabro, P.; Mathur, S.L. Tunable IR differential absorption lidar for remote sensing of chemicals. Proc. SPIE 1999, 3757, 87–97.
[10]  Weibring, P.; Abrahamsson, C.; Sj?holm, M.; Smith, J.N.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S. Multi-component chemical analysis of gas mixtures using a continuously tunable lidar system. Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt 2004, 79, 395–530.
[11]  Fujii, T.; Fukuchi, T.; Cao, N.; Nemoto, K.; Takeuchi, N. Trace atmospheric SO2 measurement by multiwavelength curve-fitting and wavelength-optimized dual differential absorption lidar. Appl. Opt 2002, 41, 524–531.
[12]  Velsko, S.P.; Ruggiero, A.J.; Hermann, M.R. Frequency-agile OPO-based transmitters for multiwavelength DIAL. Proc. SPIE 1996, 2833, 144–154.
[13]  Pahlow, M.; Müller, D.; Tesche, M.; Eichler, H.; Feingold, G.; Eberhard, W.L.; Cheng, Y. Retrieval of aerosol properties from combined multiwavelength lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Appl. Opt 2006, 45, 7429–7442.
[14]  Weibring, P.; Edner, H.; Svanberg, S. Versatile mobile lidar system for environmental monitoring. Appl. Opt 2003, 42, 3583–3594.
[15]  Müller, D.; Wandinger, U.; Althausen, D.; Fiebig, M. Comprehensive particle characterization from three-wavelength raman-lidar observations: case study. Appl. Opt 2001, 40, 4863–4869.
[16]  Althausen, D.; Müller, D.; Ansmann, A.; Wandinger, U.; Hube, H.; Clauder, E.; Z?rner, S. Scanning 6-wavelength 11-channel aerosol lidar. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol 2000, 17, 1469–1482.
[17]  Yabuki, M.; Kuze, H.; Kinjo, H; Takeuchi, N. Determination of vertical distributions of aerosol optical parameters by use of multi-wavelength lidar data. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 2003, 42, 686–694.
[18]  Schliesser, A; Brehm, M.; Keilmann, F. Frequency-comb infrared spectrometer for rapid, remote chemical sensing. Opt. Exp 2005, 13, 9029–9038.
[19]  Andersen, J.F.; Busck, J.; Heiselberg, H. Pulsed Raman fiber laser and multispectral imaging in three dimensions. Appl. Opt 2006, 45, 6198–6204.
[20]  Brown, D.M.; Shi, K.; Liu, Z.; Philbrick, C.R. Long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy for measurement of atmospheric constituents. Opt. Exp 2008, 16, 8457–8471.
[21]  Vodopyanov, K. Sensing with mid-infrared frequency combs: a novel modality for ultrasensitive detection of hazardous materials. Proc. SPIE 2009, 7304, doi:10.1117/12.820774.
[22]  Wang, Y.; Peng, C.; Zhang, H.; Le, H.Q. Wavelength modulation imaging with tunable mid-infrared semiconductor laser: spectroscopic and geometrical effects. Opt. Exp 2004, 12, 5243–5257.
[23]  Morbi, Z.; Ho, D.B.; Ren, H.W.; Le, H.Q.; Pei, S.S. Short-range remote spectral sensor using mid-infrared semiconductor lasers with orthogonal code-division multiplexing approach. Opt. Eng 2002, 41, 2321–2337.
[24]  Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Le, H.Q. Multi-spectral mid-infrared laser stand-off imaging. Opt. Exp 2005, 13, 6572–6586.
[25]  Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Peng, C.; Zhang, H.; Seetheraman, A.; Le, H.Q. Concepts for scalable, CDMA-networked, M/LWIR semiconductor laser standoff chemical detection system. Proc. SPIE 2004, 5617, 179–189.
[26]  Wang, Y.; Hu, B.; Le, H.Q. Laser multispectral polarimetric diffuse-scatter imaging. Proc. SPIE 2007, 6565, doi:10.1117/12.719247.
[27]  Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Le, H.Q. Multi-spectral imaging with mid-infrared semiconductor lasers. Proc. SPIE 2005, 6062, doi:10.1117/12.643228.
[28]  Furstenberg, R.; Kendziora, C.A.; Stepnowski, J.; Stepnowski, S.V.; Rake, M.; Papantonakis, M.R.; Nguyen, V.; Hubler, G.K.; McGill, R.A. Stand-off detection of trace explosives via resonant infrared photothermal imaging. Appl. Phys. Lett 2008, 93, 224103–224105.
[29]  Papantonakis, M.R.; Kendziora, C.A.; Furstenberg, R.; Stepnowski, S.V.; Rake, M.; Stepnowski, J.; McGill, R.A. Stand-off detection of trace explosives by infrared photothermal imaging. Proc. SPIE 2009, 7304, doi:10.1117/12.818752.
[30]  Gillespie, W.; Burd, J.. Private communications2007.
[31]  Gillespie, W.; Le, H.Q.. Unpublished data2007.
[32]  Guo, B.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Le, H.Q. Mid-infrared laser measurements of aqueous glucose. J. Biomed. Opt 2007, 12, 024005–024018.
[33]  Vujkovic-Cvijin, P.; Cooper, D.E.; van der Laan, J.E.; Warren, R.E. Diode-laser-based lidars: the next generation. Proc. SPIE 1999, 3758, 142–149.
[34]  Frish, M.B.; Wainner, R.T.; Green, B.D.; Laderer, M.C.; Allen, M.G. Standoff gas leak detectors based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Proc. SPIE 2005, 6010, 86–94.
[35]  Iseki, T.; Tai, H.; Kimura, K. A portable remote methane sensor using a tunable diode laser. Meas. Sci. Technol 2000, 11, 594–602.
[36]  Pattern Classification; Duda, R.O., Hart, P.E., Stork, D.G., Eds.; Wiley-Interscience: New York, NY, USA, 2001.


comments powered by Disqus