All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Nutrients  2012 

Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

DOI: 10.3390/nu4111692

Keywords: nutrient adequacy, dietary intake, adolescents, longitudinal study

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines ( DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

References

[1]  Committee on Use of Dietary Reference Intakes in Nutrition Labeling. Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification; The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
[2]  U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010, 7th; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
[3]  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on Dietary Guidelines for Americans; USDA Agricultural Research Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
[4]  Munoz, K.A.; Krebs-Smith, S.M.; Ballard-Barbash, R.; Cleveland, L.E. Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics 1997, 100, 323–329, doi:10.1542/peds.100.3.323.
[5]  Krebs-Smith, S.M.; Guenther, P.M.; Subar, A.F.; Kirkpatrick, S.I.; Dodd, K.W. Americans do not meet federal dietary recommendations. J. Nutr. 2010, 140, 1832–1838, doi:10.3945/jn.110.124826.
[6]  Johnson, R.K.; Johnson, D.G.; Wang, M.Q.; Smiciklas-Wright, H.; Guthrie, H.A. Characterizing nutrient intakes of adolescents by sociodemographic factors. J. Adolesc. Health 1994, 15, 149–154, doi:10.1016/1054-139X(94)90542-8.
[7]  Suitor, C.W.; Gleason, P.M. Using Dietary Reference Intake-based methods to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among school-aged children. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2002, 102, 530–536, doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90121-5.
[8]  Moshfegh, A.; Goldman, J.; Cleveland, L. What We Eat in America,NHANES 2001-2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes; United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2005.
[9]  Moshfegh, A.; Goldman, J.; Ahuja, J.; Rhodes, D.; LaComb, R. What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005–2006, Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food and Water Compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium; USDA Agricultural Research Service Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center Food Surveys Research Group: Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
[10]  Clark, M.A.; Fox, M.K. Nutritional quality of the diets of US public school children and the role of the school meal programs. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2009, 109, S44–S56, doi:10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.060.
[11]  Affenito, S.G.; Thompson, D.R.; Franko, D.L.; Striegel-Moore, R.H.; Daniels, S.R.; Barton, B.A.; Schreiber, G.B.; Schmidt, M.; Crawford, P.B. Longitudinal Assessment of Micronutrient Intake among African-American and White Girls: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2007, 107, 1113–1123, doi:10.1016/j.jada.2007.04.014.
[12]  Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Health and Human Services; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service: Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
[13]  Welch, A.A.; Fransen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Tumino, R.; Agnoli, C.; Ericson, U.; Johansson, I.; Ferrari, P.; Engeset, D.; et al. Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2009, 63 (Suppl. 4), S101–S121, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.77.
[14]  Gao, X.; Wilde, P.E.; Lichtenstein, A.H.; Tucker, K.L. Meeting adequate intake for dietary calcium without dairy foods in adolescents aged 9 to 18 years (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002). J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2006, 106, 1759–1765, doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.08.019.
[15]  Zive, M.M.; Nicklas, T.A.; Busch, E.C.; Myers, L.; Berenson, G.S. Marginal vitamin and mineral intakes of young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study. J. Adolesc. Health 1996, 19, 39–47, doi:10.1016/1054-139X(96)00022-5.
[16]  Kersting, M.; Alexy, U.; Sichert-Hellert, W. Dietary intake and food sources of minerals in 1 to 18 year old German children and adolescents. Nutr. Res. 2001, 21, 607–616, doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00262-7.
[17]  Song, W.O.; Schuette, L.K.; Huang, Y.L.; Hoerr, S. Food Group Intake Patterns in Relation to Nutritional Adequacy of Young Adults. Nutr. Res. 1996, 16, 1507–1519, doi:10.1016/0271-5317(96)00164-9.
[18]  Obarzanek, E.; Schreiber, G.B.; Crawford, P.B.; Goldman, S.R.; Barrier, P.M.; Frederick, M.M.; Lakatos, E. Energy intake and physical activity in relation to indexes of body fat: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994, 60, 15–22.
[19]  NHLBI Growth and Health Study Research Group. Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white girls: The NHLBI Growth and Health Study. Am. J. Public Health 1992, 82, 1613–1620, doi:10.2105/AJPH.82.12.1613.
[20]  Schakel, S.F.; Sievert, Y.A.; Buzzard, I.M. Sources of data for developing and maintaining a nutrient database. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1988, 88, 1268–1271.
[21]  Cook, A.; Friday, J. Pyramid Servings Database for USDA Survey Food Codes,version 2.0; USDA Agricultural Research Service, Community Nutrition Research Group: Beltsville, MD, USA, 2004. Available online: http://www.barc.usda.gov/bhnrc/cnrg (accessed on 2 November 2012).
[22]  Kimm, S.Y.; Glynn, N.W.; Kriska, A.M.; Fitzgerald, S.L.; Aaron, D.J.; Similo, S.L.; McMahon, R.P.; Barton, B.A. Longitudinal changes in physical activity in a biracial cohort during adolescence. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2000, 32, 1445–1454, doi:10.1097/00005768-200008000-00013.
[23]  Kimm, S.Y.; Glynn, N.W.; Kriska, A.M.; Barton, B.A.; Kronsberg, S.S.; Daniels, S.R.; Crawford, P.B.; Sabry, Z.I.; Liu, K. Decline in physical activity in black girls and white girls during adolescence. N. Engl. J. Med. 2002, 347, 709–715, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa003277.
[24]  Ainsworth, B.E.; Haskell, W.L.; Leon, A.S.; Jacobs, D.R., Jr.; Montoye, H.J.; Sallis, J.F.; Paffenbarger, R.S., Jr. Compendium of physical activities: Classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1993, 25, 71–80, doi:10.1249/00005768-199301000-00011.
[25]  Drewnowski, A.; Fulgoni, V., III. Nutrient profiling of foods: Creating a nutrient-rich food index. Nutr. Rev. 2008, 66, 23–39, doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00003.x.
[26]  Cole, N.; Fox, M.K. Diet Quality of American School-Age Children by School Lunch Participation Status: Data National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research, Nutrition and Analysis: Alexandria, VA, USA, 2008.
[27]  Weinberg, L.G.; Berner, L.A.; Groves, J.E. Nutrient contributions of dairy foods in the United States, Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 1994-1996, 1998. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 2004, 104, 895–902, doi:10.1016/j.jada.2004.03.017.
[28]  Cheng, S.; Lyytikainen, A.; Kroger, H.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Alen, M.; Koistinen, A.; Wang, Q.J.; Suuriniemi, M.; Suominen, H.; Mahonen, A.; et al. Effects of calcium, dairy product, and vitamin D supplementation on bone mass accrual and body composition in 10-12-y-old girls: A 2-y randomized trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005, 82, 1115–1126.
[29]  Moore, L.L.; Bradlee, M.L.; Gao, D.; Singer, M.R. Effects of average childhood dairy intake on adolescent bone health. J. Pediatr. 2008, 153, 667–673, doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.05.016.
[30]  Kerstetter, J.E. Do dairy products improve bone density in adolescent girls? Nutr. Rev. 1995, 53, 328–332, doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1995.tb01488.x.
[31]  Holick, M.F. Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 2007, 357, 266–281, doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553.
[32]  Whiting, S.J.; Healey, A.; Psiuk, S.; Mirwald, R.; Kowalski, K.; Bailey, D. Relationship between carbonated and other low nutrient dense beverages and bone mineral content of adolescents. Nutr. Res. 2001, 21, 1107–1115, doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(01)00324-4.
[33]  Gordon, C.M.; DePeter, K.C.; Feldman, H.A.; Grace, E.; Emans, S.J. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2004, 158, 531–537, doi:10.1001/archpedi.158.6.531.
[34]  Cashman, K.D.; Hill, T.R.; Cotter, A.A.; Boreham, C.A.; Dubitzky, W.; Murray, L.; Strain, J.; Flynn, A.; Robson, P.J.; Wallace, J.M.; et al. Low vitamin D status adversely affects bone health parameters in adolescents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2008, 87, 1039–1044.
[35]  Teegarden, D.; Lyle, R.M.; McCabe, G.P.; McCabe, L.D.; Proulx, W.R.; Michon, K.; Knight, A.P.; Johnston, C.C.; Weaver, C.M. Dietary calcium, protein, and phosphorus are related to bone mineral density and content in young women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998, 68, 749–754.
[36]  O’Neil, C.E.; Zanovec, M.; Keast, D.R.; Fulgoni, V.L., III; Nicklas, T.A. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Meat Sci. 2011, 87, 250–256, doi:10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.10.020.
[37]  Shaikh, U.; Byrd, R.S.; Auinger, P. Vitamin and mineral supplement use by children and adolescents in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Relationship with nutrition, food security, physical activity, and health care access. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2009, 163, 150–157, doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.523.
[38]  Poppitt, S.D.; Swann, D.; Black, A.E.; Prentice, A.M. Assessment of selective under-reporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 1998, 22, 303–311.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus