The yields of petroleum ether extract (PE), chloroform extract (CE), acetone extract (AE), methanol extract (ME) and water extract (WE) of Ganoderma lucidum nano- and micron-sized fruiting body powder, and the yields of PE, CE, AE, ME as well as WE of Ganoderma lucidum wall-broken nano-sized and wall-unbroken spore powder, were compared. GC-MS spectrometer was used for analysis and identification of constituents of the PEs. The total sugars of the WEs were determined. In vitro proliferation effect on the human uterine cervical cancer cell line (Hela cells) and the human lens epithelial cells line (SRA01/04 cells) and dose effect relationship of the aqueous extracts were studied. This study aims at providing a theoretical basis for the resource protection and further development and utilization of Ganoderma lucidum. The results showed that the different solvent extraction yields of the nano-sized Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body powder and the wall-broken nano-sized spore powder increased significantly. The aqueous extract of the nano-sized Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body powder has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Hela cells and SRA01/04 cells, while the various solvent extracts of the wall-broken nano-sized spore powder did not show obvious proliferation inhibition.