Altitudinal patterns of the lichen genus Cladonia and 18 species in the genus were investigated based on herbarium collections. Species in the genus are inclined to grow at high elevation. Normal and lognormal probability patterns are ubiquitous for vertical distribution of these species, and vertical patterns are somewhat elevation-dependent. The altitudinal ranges of the species were found to decrease with increase of altitude. These evidences suggest an immediate threat from global warming to some species growing at higher elevation in the genus. Ecological evidence also confirms C. bacillaris and C. macilenta are conspecific.