The population genetic structures of the giant mottled eel from Hainan and Philippines were investigated by sequencing the mitochondrial control region (D-loop) gene for the first time. The average contents of A, T, G and C in the control region were 39.8%, 28.3%, 12.4% and 19.4%, respectively. There were 73 polymorphisms sites from the sequenced samples revealing 18 haplotypes. By calculating the haplotype diversity (Hd), nucleotide diversity (Pi) and average number of pairwise nucleotide difference (k), the Philippines population exhibited higher level of variability (Hd=1.000, Pi=0.26728, k=271.821) than the Hainan population (Hd=0.982, Pi=0.21577, k=219.655 and the genetic distance (P) was 0.3203 between two populations. By constructing the molecular phylogenetic tree with the method of NJ, the two geographic populations of the giant mottled eel did not show significant genetic difference. Besides, neutrality tests indicated a possible stable population in the population history of the giant mottled eel.