Mesoporous silica molecular sieves are a kind of unique catalyst support due to their large pore size and high surface area. Several methods have been developed to immobilize heteropolyacids (HPAs) inside the channels of these mesoporous silicas. The mesoporous silica-supported HPA materials have been widely used as recyclable catalysts in heterogeneous systems. They have shown high catalytic activities and shape selectivities in some reactions, compared to the parent HPAs in homogeneous systems. This review summarizes recent progress in the field of mesoporous silica-supported HPAs applied in the heterogeneous catalysis area and preparation of nanostructured metal oxides using HPAs as precursors and mesoporous silicas as hard templates.