All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Significance of Dietary Antioxidants for Health

DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010173

Keywords: antioxidants, bioavailability, health

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Since evidence became available that free radicals were involved in mechanisms for the development of major diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer, there has been considerable research into the properties of natural dietary antioxidants. However, it has become clear that dietary antioxidants can only have beneficial effects in vivo by radical scavenging or effects on redox potential if they are present in tissues or bodily fluids at sufficient concentrations. For many dietary components, absorption is limited or metabolism into derivatives reduces the antioxidant capacity. For many dietary phytochemicals, direct antioxidant effects may be less important for health than other effects including effects on cell signalling or gene expression in vivo.


[1]  Duff, G.L.; McMillian, G.C. Pathology of atherosclerosis. Am. J. Med 1951, 11, 92–108.
[2]  Keys, A. Atherosclerosis: A problem in newer public health. J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. N Y 1953, 20, 118–139.
[3]  Law, M.R.; Morris, J.K. By how much does fruit and vegetable consumption reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease? Eur. J. Clin. Nutr 1998, 52, 549–556.
[4]  Leopoldini, M.; Russo, N.; Toscano, M. The molecular basis of working mechanism of natural polyphenolic antioxidants. Food Chem 2011, 125, 288–306.
[5]  Omoni, A.O.; Aluko, R.E. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic effects of lycopene: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol 2005, 16, 344–350.
[6]  Roberts, W.G.; Gordon, M.H.; Walker, A.F. Effects of enhanced consumption of fruit and vegetables on plasma antioxidant status and oxidative resistance of LDL in smokers supplemented with fish oil. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr 2003, 57, 1303–1310.
[7]  Seidel, C.; Boehm, V.; Vogelsang, H.; Wagner, A.; Persin, C.; Glei, M.; Pool-Zobel, B.L.; Jahreis, G. Influence of prebiotics and antioxidants in bread on the immune system, antioxidative status and antioxidative capacity in male smokers and non-smokers. Br. J. Nutr 2007, 97, 349–356.
[8]  Young, J.F.; Dragsted, L.O.; Haraldsdottir, J.; Daneshvar, B.; Kall, M.A.; Loft, S.; Nilsson, L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Mayer, B.; Skibsted, L.H.; et al. Green tea extract only affects markers of oxidative status postprandially: Lasting antioxidant effect of flavonoid-free diet. Br. J. Nutr 2002, 87, 343–355.
[9]  Gomez-Juaristi, M.; Gonzalez-Torres, L.; Bravo, L.; Vaquero, M.P.; Bastida, S.; Sanchez-Muniz, F.J. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health. Nutr. Hosp 2011, 26, 289–292.
[10]  Benzie, I.F.F.; Wachtel-Galor, S. Vegetarian diets and public health: Biomarker and redox connections. Antioxid. Redox Signal 2010, 13, 1575–1591.
[11]  Duplancic, D.; Kukoc-Modun, L.; Modun, D.; Radic, N. simple and rapid method for the determination of uric acid-independent antioxidant capacity. Molecules 2011, 16, 7058–7067.
[12]  Godycki-Cwirko, M.; Krol, M.; Krol, B.; Zwolinska, A.; Kolodziejczyk, K.; Kasielski, M.; Padula, G.; Grebocki, J.; Kazimierska, P.; Miatkowski, M.; et al. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects. J. Am. Coll. Nutr 2010, 29, 397–406.
[13]  Strasak, A.M.; Kelleher, C.C.; Brant, L.J.; Rapp, K.; Ruttmann, E.; Concin, H.; Diem, G.; Pfeiffer, K.P.; Ulmer, H. Serum uric acid is an independent predictor for all major forms of cardiovascular death in 28,613 elderly women: A prospective 21-year follow-up study. Int. J. Cardiol 2008, 125, 232–239.
[14]  Smith, J.L.; Hodges, R.E. Serum levels of vitamin C in relation to dietary and supplemental intake of vitamin C in smokers and non-smokers. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 1987, 498, 144–152.
[15]  Lykkesfeldt, J.; Poulsen, H.E. Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomised controlled trials. Br. J. Nutr 2010, 103, 1251–1259.
[16]  Yeum, K.J.; Russell, R.M. Carotenoid bioavailability and bioconversion. Ann. Rev. Nutr 2002, 22, 483–504.
[17]  Tyssandier, V.; Lyan, B.; Borel, P. Main factors governing the transfer of carotenoids from emulsion lipid droplets to micelles. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2001, 1533, 285–292.
[18]  Yonekura, L.; Nagao, A. Intestinal absorption of dietary carotenoids. Mol. Nutr. Food Res 2007, 51, 107–115.
[19]  Novotny, J.A.; Kurilich, A.C.; Britz, S.J.; Clevidence, B.A. Plasma appearance of labeled beta-carotene, lutein, and retinol in humans after consumption of isotopically labeled kale. J. Lipid Res 2005, 46, 1896–1903.
[20]  Rowe, P.M. CARET and ATBC refine conclusions about beta-carotene. Lancet 1996, 348, 1369–1369.
[21]  Thurnham, D.I. Macular zeaxanthins and lutein—a review of dietary sources and bioavailability and some relationships with macular pigment optical density and age-related macular disease. Nutr. Res. Rev 2007, 20, 163–179.
[22]  Pryor, W.A.; Stahl, W.; Rock, C.L. Beta carotene: From biochemistry to clinical trials. Nutr. Rev 2000, 58, 39–53.
[23]  Del Rio, D.; Borges, G.; Crozier, A. Berry flavonoids and phenolics: Bioavailability and evidence of protective effects. Br. J. Nutr 2010, 104, S67–S90.
[24]  Manach, C.; Williamson, G.; Morand, C.; Scalbert, A.; Remesy, C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. I. Review of 97 bioavailability studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr 2005, 81, 230S–242S.
[25]  Mullen, W.; Edwards, C.A.; Crozier, A. Absorption, excretion and metabolite profiling of methyl-, glucuronyl-, glucosyl- and sulpho-conjugates of quercetin in human plasma and urine after ingestion of onions. Br. J. Nutr 2006, 96, 107–116.
[26]  Jaganath, I.B.; Mullen, W.; Edwards, C.A.; Crozier, A. The relative contribution of the small and large intestine to the absorption and metabolism of rutin in man. Free Radic. Res 2006, 40, 1035–1046.
[27]  Lambert, J.D.; Hong, J.; Lu, H.; Meng, X.; Lee, M.-J.; Yang, C.S. Bioavailabilities of Tea Polyphenols in Humans and Rodents. In Protective Effects of Tea on Human Health, 1st ed; Jain, N.K., Siddiqi, M., Weisburger, J., Eds.; CABI: Oxfordshire, UK, 2006; pp. 25–33.
[28]  Stalmach, A.; Mullen, W.; Pecorari, M.; Serafini, M.; Crozier, A. Bioavailability of C-linked dihydrochalcone and flavanone glucosides in humans following ingestion of unfermented and fermented rooibos teas. J. Agric. Food Chem 2009, 57, 7104–7111.
[29]  Mullen, W.; Archeveque, M.-A.; Edwards, C.A.; Matsumoto, H.; Crozier, A. Bioavailability and metabolism of orange juice flavanones in humans: Impact of a full-fat yogurt. J. Agric. Food Chem 2008, 56, 11157–11164.
[30]  Rufer, C.E.; Bub, A.; Moseneder, J.; Winterhalter, P.; Stuertz, M.; Kulling, S.E. Pharmacokinetics of the soybean isoflavone daidzein in its aglycone and glucoside form: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr 2008, 87, 1314–1323.
[31]  Wiczkowski, W.; Romaszko, E.; Piskula, M.K. Bioavailability of cyanidin glycosides from natural chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice with dietary-relevant dose of anthocyanins in humans. J. Agric. Food Chem 2010, 58, 12130–12136.
[32]  Vari, R.; D’Archivio, M.; Filesi, C.; Carotenuto, S.; Scazzocchio, B.; Santangelo, C.; Giovannini, C.; Masella, R. Protocatechuic acid induces antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme expression through JNK-mediated Nrf2 activation in murine macrophages. J. Nutr. Biochem 2011, 22, 409–417.
[33]  Kim, J.-E.; Son, J.E.; Jung, S.K.; Kang, N.J.; Lee, C.Y.; Lee, K.W.; Lee, H.J. Cocoa polyphenols suppress TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression by inhibiting phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MEK1) activities in mouse epidermal cells. Br. J. Nutr 2010, 104, 957–964.
[34]  Manach, C.; Scalbert, A.; Morand, C.; Remesy, C.; Jimenez, L. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr 2004, 79, 727–747.
[35]  Yang, C.S.; Sang, S.; Lambert, J.D.; Lee, M.J. Bioavailability issues in studying the health effects of plant polyphenolic compounds. Mol. Nutr. Food Res 2008, 52, S139–S151.
[36]  Lotito, S.B.; Zhang, W.-J.; Yang, C.S.; Crozier, A.; Frei, B. Metabolic conversion of dietary flavonoids alters their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Free Radic. Biol. Med 2011, 51, 454–463.


comments powered by Disqus