All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits

DOI: 10.3390/ijms12074678

Keywords: drying process, fruits antioxidants, bioactive compounds, ascorbic acid, HPLC, antioxidant attributes

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit ( Averrhoa carambola L.), mango ( Mangifera indica L.), papaya ( Carica papaya L.), muskmelon ( Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant ( p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant ( p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly ( p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant ( p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.


[1]  Ames, BM; Shigena, MK; Hagen, TM. Oxidants, antioxidants and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1993, 90, 7915–7922.
[2]  Duthie, SJ; Ma, A; Ross, MA; Collins, AR. Antioxidant supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Cancer Res 1996, 56, 1291–1295.
[3]  Vivekananthan, DP; Penn, MS; Hsu, A; Topol, EJ. Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: Meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2003, 361, 2017–2023.
[4]  Heliovaara, M; Knekt, P; Aho, K; Aaran, RK; Alfthan, G; Aromaa, A. Serum antioxidants and risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis 1994, 53, 51–53.
[5]  Klerk, M; Veer, P; van’t Kok, FJFJ. Fruits and Vegetables in Chronic Disease Prevention; LUW: Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1998; p. 86.
[6]  Lim, YY; Lim, TT; Tee, JJ. Antioxidant properties of several tropical fruits: A comparative study. Food Chem 2007, 103, 1003–1008.
[7]  Wong, SP; Leong, LP; Koh, JHW. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of selected plants. Food Chem 2006, 99, 775–783.
[8]  Pérez-Gregorio, MR; Regueiro, J; González-Barreiro, C; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J. Changes in antioxidant flavonoids during freeze-drying of red anions and subsequent storage. Food Control 2011, 22, 1108–1113.
[9]  Robles-Sánchez, RM; Rojas-Graüb, MA; Odriozola-Serranob, I; González-Aguilara, GA; Martín-Bellosob, O. Effect of minimal processing on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut “Kent” mango (Mangifera indica L.). Postharvest Biol. Technol 2009, 51, 384–390.
[10]  Patthamakanokporn, O; Prapasri, P; Anadi, N; Prapaisri, PS. Changes of antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage of selected fruits. J. Food Compos. Anal 2008, 21, 241–248.
[11]  Pérez-Gregorio, MR; Garcia-Falcon, MS; Simal-Gandara, J. Flavonoids changes in fresh-cut onions during storage in different packaging systems. Food Chem 2011, 124, 652–658.
[12]  Pérez-Gregorio, MR; Regueiro, J; Alonso-González, E; Pastrana-Castro, LM; Simal-Gándara, J. Influence of alcoholic fermentation process on antioxidant activity and phenolic levels from mulberries (Morus nigra L.). LWT-Food Sci. Technol 2011, 44, 1793–1801.
[13]  Rodrigues, AS; Pérez-Gregorio, MR; García-Falcón, MS; Simal-Gándara, J. Effect of curing and cooking on flavonols and anthocyanins in traditional varieties of onion bulbs. Food Res Int 2009, 42, 1331–1336.
[14]  Marques, LG; Prado, MM; Freire, JT. Rehydration characteristics of freeze-dried tropical fruits. J. Food Sci. Technol 2009, 42, 1232–1237.
[15]  Marques, LG; Silveira, AM; Freire, JT. Freeze-drying characteristics of tropical fruits. Drying Technol 2006, 24, 457–463.
[16]  Chang, CH; Lin, HY; Chang, CY; Liu, YC. Comparisons on the antioxidant properties of fresh, freeze-dried and hot-air-dried tomatoes. J. Food Eng 2006, 77, 478–485.
[17]  Murcia, MA; Lopez-Ayerra, B; Martinez-Tome, M; Vera, AM; Garcia-Carmon, F. Evolution of ascorbic acid and the peroxidase during industrial processing of broccoli. J. Sci. Food Agric 2000, 80, 1882–1886.
[18]  Luximon-Ramma, A; Bahorun, T; Crozier, A. Antioxidant actions and phenolic and vitamin C contents of common Maurition exotic fruits. J. Sci. Food Agric 2003, 83, 496–502.
[19]  Wu, X; Beecher, GR; Holden, JM; Haytowitz, DM; Gebhardt, SE; Prior, RL. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. J. Agric. Food Chem 2004, 52, 4026–4037.
[20]  Brat, P; George, S; Bellamy, A; Chaffaut, LD; Scalbert, A; Mennen, L. Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables. J. Nutr 2006, 136, 2368–2373.
[21]  Moure, A; Franco, D; Sineiro, J; Domínguez, H; Nú?ez, MJ; Lema, JM. Evaluation of extracts from Gevuina avellana hulls as antioxidants. J. Agric. Food Chem 2000, 48, 3890–3897.
[22]  Boudries, H; Kefalas, P; Hornero-Mendez, D. Carotenoid composition of Algerian date varieties (Phonenix datylifera) at different edible maturity stages. Food Chem 2007, 101, 1372–1377.
[23]  Charoensiri, R; Kongkachuichai, R; Suknicom, S; Sungpug, P. Beta carotene, lycopene and alpha tocopherol contents of selected Thai fruits. Food Chem 2009, 113, 202–207.
[24]  Wall, MM. Ascorbic acid, vitamin A and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii. J. Food Compos. Anal 2006, 14, 434–445.
[25]  Ashie, INA; Simpson, BK. Application of high hydrostatic pressure to control enzyme related fresh seafood texture deterioration. Food Res. Int 1996, 29, 569–575.
[26]  Aherne, SA; O?’Brien, NM. Dietary flavonols: Chemistry, food contents and metabolism. Nutrition 2002, 18, 75–81.
[27]  Amarowicz, R; Carle, R; Dongowski, G; Durazzo, A; Galensa, R; Kammerer, D; Malani, G; Piskula, M. Influence of postharvest processing and storage on the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in foods. Mol. Nutr. Food Res 2009, 53, S151–S183.
[28]  Leong, LP; Shui, G. An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chem 2002, 76, 69–75.
[29]  Franke, AA; Custer, LJ; Arakaki, C; Murphy, SP. Vitamin C and flavonoid levels of fruits and vegetables consumed in Hawaii. J. Food Compos. Anal 2004, 17, 1–35.
[30]  Hernandez, Y; Gloria, LM; Gonzalez, M. Determination of vitamin C in tropicals fruits: A comparative evaluation of methods. Food Chem 2006, 96, 654–664.
[31]  Hawlader, MNA; Perera, CO; Tian, M; Yeo, KL. Drying of guava and papaya: Impact of different drying methods. Drying Technol 2006, 24, 77–87.
[32]  Jayaraman, KS; Ramanaja, MN; Dhakne, YS; Vijayaraghavan, PK. Enzymatic browning in some varieties as related to PPO activity and other endogenous factors. J. Food Sci. Technol 1982, 19, 181–185.
[33]  Tee, ES; Lim, CL. Carotenoid composition and content of Malaysian vegetables and fruits by the AOAC and HPLC methods. Food Chem 1991, 41, 309–339.
[34]  Veda, S; Platel, K; Srinivasan, K. Varietal Differences in the Bioaccessibility of β-carotene from Mango (Mangifera indica) and Papaya (Carica papaya) Fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem 2007, 55, 7931–7935.
[35]  Mangels, AR; Holden, JM; Beecher, GR; Forman, MR; Lanza, E. Carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables: An evaluation of analytic data. J. Am. Diet. Assoc 1993, 93, 284–296.
[36]  Setiawan, B; Sulaeman, A; Giraud, DW; Driskell, JA. Carotenoid content of selected Indonesian fruits. J. Food Compos. Anal 2001, 14, 169–196.
[37]  Vamos-Vigyazo, L. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in fruits and vegetables. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr 1981, 15, 49–127.
[38]  Hunter, KJ; Fletcher, JM. The antioxidant activity and composition of fresh, frozen, jarred and canned vegetables. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol 2002, 3, 399–406.
[39]  Tengku-Adnan, TA; Augustin, MA; Mohd-Ghazali, H. Polyphenoloxidase from Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.). Pertanika 1986, 9, 219–224.
[40]  Flurkey, WH; Jen, JJ. Peroxidase and PPO activites in developing peaches. J. Food Sci 1978, 43, 1826–1828.
[41]  Augustin, MA; Mohd-Ghazali, H; Hashim, H. Polyphenoloxidase from guava (Psidium guajava L.). J. Sci. Food Agric 1985, 36, 1259–1265.
[42]  Park, YK; Sato, HH; Almeida, TD; Moretti, RH. Polyphenol oxidase of mango (Mangifera indica, var. Haden). J. Food Sci 1980, 45, 1619–1621.
[43]  Lee, YL; Yen, MT; Mau, JL. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from Hypsizigus marmoreus. Food Chem 2008, 104, 1–9.
[44]  Lee, YL; Yang, JH; Mau, JL. Antioxidant properties of water extracts from Monascus fermented soybeans. Food Chem 2007, 106, 1128–1137.
[45]  Miliauskas, G; Venskutonis, PR; van-Beek, TA. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem 2004, 85, 231–237.
[46]  Kosar, M; Bozan, B; Temelli, F; Baser, KHC. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts. Food Chem 2007, 103, 952–959.
[47]  Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed ed.; Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc.: Arlington, VA, USA, 1990.
[48]  Singleton, VL; Orthofer, R; Lamuela-Ravento’s, RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 1999, 299, 152–178.
[49]  Wimalasiri, P; Wills, RBH. Simultaneous analysis of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in fruit and vegetables by HPLC. J. Chromatogr 1983, 15, 418–421.
[50]  Brand-Williams, W; Cuvelier, ME; Berset, C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci. Technol 1995, 28, 25–30.
[51]  Benzie, IFF; Strain, JJ. Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. Methods Enzymol 1999, 299, 15–27.
[52]  Lingnert, H; Vallentin, K; Eriksson, CE. Measurement of antioxidative effect in model system. J Food Process Preserv 1979, 3, 87–103.


comments powered by Disqus