In this paper, research results on the mechanism and prediction of disastrous weathers, including heavy rainfall causing floods, severe strong rainfall by landfall typhoons, cold waves, heavy snowfall, strong dust storms, and extreme hot events, are briefly presented. Some of the main extreme weathers are mentioned and discussed. Recently, disastrous weathers have been occurring very frequently and causing significant damages. These weathers are associated with multiscale systems and the interactions between them, particularly due to climate changes, general circulation anomalies, and activities of mesoscale systems. Therefore, the mechanism and prediction of disastrous weathers have become more complicated. Nevertheless, the abovementioned related scientific problems are still reviewed in this paper. Moreover, some suggestions are proposed for the future research.