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The Bondons: The Quantum Particles of the Chemical Bond

DOI: 10.3390/ijms11114227

Keywords: de Broglie-Bohm theory, Schr?dinger equation, Dirac equation, chemical field, gauge/phase symmetry transformation, bondonic properties, Raman scattering

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Abstract:

By employing the combined Bohmian quantum formalism with the U(1) and SU(2) gauge transformations of the non-relativistic wave-function and the relativistic spinor, within the Schr?dinger and Dirac quantum pictures of electron motions, the existence of the chemical field is revealed along the associate bondon particle ?characterized by its mass ( mΒ), velocity ( v Β), charge ( e Β), and life-time ( t Β). This is quantized either in ground or excited states of the chemical bond in terms of reduced Planck constant ?, the bond energy Ebond and length Xbond, respectively. The mass-velocity-charge-time quaternion properties of bondons’ particles were used in discussing various paradigmatic types of chemical bond towards assessing their covalent, multiple bonding, metallic and ionic features. The bondonic picture was completed by discussing the relativistic charge and life-time (the actual zitterbewegung) problem, i.e., showing that the bondon equals the benchmark electronic charge through moving with almost light velocity. It carries negligible, although non-zero, mass in special bonding conditions and towards observable femtosecond life-time as the bonding length increases in the nanosystems and bonding energy decreases according with the bonding length-energy relationship E bond[ kcal/mol]*X bond[A]=182019, providing this way the predictive framework in which the particle may be observed. Finally, its role in establishing the virtual states in Raman scattering was also established.

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