Ischemic postconditioning refers to several transient reperfusion and ischemia cycles after an ischemic event and before a long duration of reperfusion. The procedure produces neuroprotective effects. The mechanisms underlying these neuroprotective effects are poorly understood. In this study, we found that most neurons in the CA1 region died after 10 minutes of ischemia and is followed by 72 hours of reperfusion. However, brain ischemic postconditioning (six cycles of 10 s/10 s reperfusion/re-occlusion) signi？cantly reduced neuronal death. Signi？cant up-regulation of Glutamate transporter-1 was found after 3, 6, 24, 72 hours of reperfusion. The present study showed that ischemic postconditioning decreases cell death and that upregulation of GLT-1 expression may play an important role on this effect.
Xing, BZ; Chen, H; Zhang, M; Zhao, DM; Jiang, R; Liu, XH; Zhang, SM. Ischemic postconditioning inhibits apoptosis after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Stroke？2008, 39, 2362–2369.
Taskapilioglu, MO; Alkan, T; Goren, B; Tureyen, K; Sahin, S; Taskapilioglu, O; Korfali, E. Neuronal protective effects of focal ischemic pre- and/or postconditioning on the model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. J. Clin. Neurosci？2009, 16, 693–697.
Rao, VL; Dogan, A; Todd, KG; Bowen, KK; Kim, BT; Rothstein, JD; Dempsey, RJ. Antisense knockdown of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1, but not the neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1, exacerbates transient focal cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage in rat brain. J. Neurosci？2001, 21, 1876–1883.
Gao, X; Zhang, H; Takahashi, T; Hsieh, J; Liao, J; Steinberg, GK; Zhao, H. The Akt signaling pathway contributes to postconditioning’s protection against stroke; the protection is associated with the MAPK and PKC pathways. J. Neurochem？2008, 105, 943–955.
Chen, JC; Hsu-Chou, H; Lu, JL; Chiang, YC; Huang, HM; Wang, HL; Wu, T; Liao, JJ; Yeh, TS. Down-regulation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 in rat hippocampus and striatum and its modulation by a group III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist following transient global forebrain ischemia. Neuropharmacology？2005, 49, 703–714.
Han, F; Shioda, N; Moriguchi, S; Qin, ZH; Fukunaga, K. Downregulation of glutamate transporters is associated with elevation in extracellular glutamate concentration following rat microsphere embolism. Neurosci. Lett？2008, 430, 275–280.
Rothstein, JD; Dykes-Hoberg, M; Pardo, CA; Bristol, LA; Jin, L; Kuncl, RW; Kanai, Y; Hediger, MA; Wang, Y; Schielke, JP; et al. Knockout of glutamate transporters reveals a major role for astroglial transport in excitotoxicity and clearance of glutamate. Neuron？1996, 16, 675–686.
Chu, K; Lee, ST; Sinn, DI; Ko, SY; Kim, EH; Kim, JM; Kim, SJ; Park, DK; Jung, KH; Song, EC; et al. Pharmacological Induction of Ischemic Tolerance by Glutamate Transporter-1 (EAAT2) Upregulation. Stroke？2007, 38, 177–182.
Vanhoutte, N; Abarca-Quinones, J; Jordan, BF; Gallez, B; Maloteaux, JM; Hermans, E. Enhanced expression of the high affinity glutamate transporter GLT-1 in C6 glioma cells delays tumour progression in rat. Exp. Neurol？2009, 218, 56–63.
Bjornsen, LP; Eid, T; Holmseth, S; Danbolt, NC; Spencer, DD; de Lanerolle, NC. Changes in glial glutamate transporters in human epileptogenic hippocampus: Inadequate explanation for high extracellular glutamate during seizures. Neurobiol. Dis？2007, 25, 319–330.
Miao, Y; Zhang, W; Lin, Y; Lu, X; Qiu, Y. Neuroprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning on global brain ischemia through up-regulation of acid-sensing ion channel 2a. Int. J. Mol. Sci？2010, 11, 140–153.