All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


The Association Between Community Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg, Canada

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9020579

Keywords: childhood asthma, community stressors, multilevel modelling

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

It is generally surmised that community stressors have an incubating effect for a variety of diagnoses on maternal and child health. This is of public health significance, as children of mothers facing long-term distress were found to have a 60% higher risk for asthma diagnosis at age 7 in Manitoba, Canada. Our objective was to determine the association of community stressors with childhood asthma prevalence in Winnipeg, Canada from participants who completed the Study of Asthma, Genes and the Environment (SAGE) survey administered in 2002–2003 to a birth cohort from 1995. Measures of community socioeconomic makeup and community disorder with rank ordinalized by quintile at the census tract level were obtained from the 1996 Canada Census. Crime data (annual incidence per 10,000 persons) by neighbourhood profile for 2001 was provided by the Winnipeg Police Service. Dichotomous caregiver report of child asthma along with other indicators from the geocoded SAGE survey allowed linkage to 23 neighbourhood profiles. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of community stressors on childhood asthma prevalence for birth and non-birth home children ( N = 1472) and children resident of birth homes at age 7 or 8 ( N = 698). After adjusting for individual risk factors, children resident of birth homes in a high thefts over $5,000 neighbourhood profile were twice as likely (Adjusted OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.11–3.81) to have report of asthma compared to children in a lower thefts over $5,000 profile, with community thefts over $5,000 explaining over half of the observed neighbourhood variation in asthma.

References

[1]  Lee, J.T.; Son, J.Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, S.Y. Effect of air pollution on asthma-related hospital admissions for children by socioeconomic status associated with area of residence. Arch. Environ. Occup. Health 2006, 61, 123–130.
[2]  Persky, V.W.; Slezak, J.; Contreras, A.; Becker, L.; Hernandez, E.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Piorkowski, J. Relationships of race and socioeconomic status with prevalence, severity, and symptoms of asthma in Chicago school children. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998, 81, 266–271, doi:10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62824-4.
[3]  Gupta, R.S.; Zhang, X.; Sharp, L.K.; Shannon, J.J.; Weiss, K.B. Geographic variability in childhood asthma prevalence in Chicago. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2008, 121, 639–645.
[4]  Sternthal, M.J.; Coull, B.A.; Chiu, Y.H.M.; Cohen, S.; Wright, R.J. Associations among maternal childhood socioeconomic status, cord blood IgE levels, and repeated wheeze in urban children. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2011, 128, 337–345, doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.05.008.
[5]  Bacon, S.L.; Bouchard, A.; Loucks, E.B.; Lavoie, K.L. Individual-level socioeconomic status is associated with worse asthma morbidity in patients with asthma. Respir. Res. 2009, 10, 125.
[6]  Subbarao, P.; Becker, A.; Brook, J.R.; Daley, D.; Mandhane, P.J.; Miller, G.E.; Turvey, S.W.; Sears, M.R. Epidemiology of asthma: Risk factors for development. Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. 2009, 5, 777–795.
[7]  Szreter, S.; Woolcock, M. Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. Int. J. Epidemiol. 2004, 33, 650–667, doi:10.1093/ije/dyh013.
[8]  Sampson, R.J. Disparity and diversity in the contemporary city: Social (dis)order revisited. Br. J. Sociol. 2009, 60, 1–31.
[9]  Foster, H.; Brooks-Gunn, J. Toward a stress process model of children’s exposure to physical family and community violence. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 2009, 12, 71–94.
[10]  Gee, G.C.; Payne-Sturges, D. Environmental Health disparities: A framework integrating psychosocial and environmental concepts. Environ. Health Perspect. 2004, 112, 1645–1653.
[11]  Matheson, F.I.; Moineddin, R.; Dunn, J.R.; Creatore, M.I.; Gozdyra, P.; Glazier, R.H. Urban neighborhoods, chronic stress, gender and depression. Soc. Sci. Med. 2006, 63, 2604–2616, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.07.001.
[12]  Steptoe, A.; Feldman, P.J. Neighborhood problems as sources of chronic stress: development of a measure of neighborhood problems, and associations with socioeconomic status and health. Ann. Behav. Med. 2001, 23, 177.
[13]  Myers, T.; Tomasio, L. Asthma: 2015 and Beyond. Respir. Care 2011, 56, 1389–1410.
[14]  Hwang, B.F.; Lee, Y.L.; Lin, Y.C.; Jaakkola, J.J.K.; Guo, Y.L. Traffic related air pollution as a determinant of asthma among Taiwanese school children. Thorax 2005, 60, 467–473.
[15]  Shankardass, K.; McConnell, R.S.; Milam, J.; Berhane, K.; Tatalovich, Z.; Wilson, J.P.; Jerrett, M. The association between contextual socioeconomic factors and prevalent asthma in a cohort of Southern California school children. Soc. Sci. Med. 2007, 65, 1792.
[16]  Burra, T.A.; Moineddin, R.; Agha, M.M.; Glazier, R.H. Social disadvantage, air pollution, and asthma physician visits in Toronto, Canada. Environ. Res. 2009, 109, 567–574, doi:10.1016/j.envres.2009.03.004.
[17]  Finkelstein, M.M.; Jerrett, M.; DeLuca, P.; Finkelstein, N.; Verma, D.K.; Chapman, K.; Sears, M.R. Relation between income, air pollution and mortality: A cohort study. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 2003, 169, 397–402.
[18]  Smargiassi, A.; Kosatsky, T.; Hicks, J.; Plante, C.; Armstrong, B.; Villeneuve, P.J.; Goudreau, S. Risk of asthmatic episodes in children exposed to sulfur dioxide stack emissions from a refinery point source in Montreal, Canada. Environ. Health Perspect. 2009, 117, 653–659.
[19]  Henderson, C.; Roux, A.V.; David, R.J.; Kiefe, C.I.; West, D.; Williams, D.R. Neighbourhood characteristics, individual level socioeconomic factors, and depressive symptoms in young adults: The CARDIA study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 2005, 59, 322–328, doi:10.1136/jech.2003.018846.
[20]  Laraia, B.; Messer, L.; Kaufman, J.; Dole, N.; Caughy, M.; O’Campo, P.; Savitz, D. Direct observation of neighborhood attributes in an urban area of the US south: characterizing the social context of pregnancy. Int. J. Health Geogr. 2006, 5, 11.
[21]  O’Campo, P.; Salmon, C.; Burke, J. Neighbourhoods and mental well-being: What are the pathways? Health Place 2009, 15, 56–68, doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.02.004.
[22]  Sampson, R.J.; Morenoff, J.D.; Felton, E. Beyond social capital: spatial dynamics of collective efficacy for children. Am. Sociol. Rev. 1999, 64, 633–660.
[23]  Wright, R.J. Health effects of socially toxic neighborhoods: The violence and urban asthma paradigm. Clin. Chest Med. 2006, 27, 413–421.
[24]  Sternthal, M.J.; Jun, H.J.; Earls, F.; Wright, R.J. Community violence and urban childhood asthma: A multilevel analysis. Eur. Respir. J. 2010, 36, 1400–1409.
[25]  Morello-Frosch, R.; Shenassa, E.D. The Environmental riskscape and social inequality: Implications for explaining maternal and child health disparities. Environ. Health Perspect. 2006, 114, 1150.
[26]  Cutrona, C.E.; Wallace, G.; Wesner, K.A. Neighborhood characteristics and depression: An examination of stress processes. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 2006, 15, 188–192.
[27]  Mulvaney, C.; Kendrick, D. Depressive symptoms in mothers of pre-school children. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2005, 40, 202–208.
[28]  Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Mai, X.M.; McGrath, P.; HayGlass, K.T.; Becker, A.B.; MacNeil, B. Continued exposure to maternal distress in early life is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008, 177, 142–147.
[29]  Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Hayglass, K.T.; Sandford, A.J.; Parq, P.D.; Chan-Yeung, M.; Becker, A.B. A novel study design to investigate the early-life origins of asthma in children (SAGE study). Allergy 2009, 64, 1185–1193.
[30]  Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Kendall, G.E.; Jacoby, P.; Sly, P.D.; Zubrick, S.R. Association between socioeconomic status and the development of asthma: analyses of income trajectories. Am. J. Public Health 2010, 100, 540–546.
[31]  Farfel, A.; Tirosh, A.; Derazne, E.; Garty, B.Z.; Afek, A. Association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of asthma. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010, 104, 490–495.
[32]  Garner, R.; Kohen, D. Changes in the prevalence of asthma among Canadian children. Health Rep. 2008, 19, 45–50.
[33]  Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Becker, A.B. Rural-urban differences in asthma prevalence: Possible explanations. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2004, 113, S306.
[34]  Gupta, R.S.; Zhang, X.; Springston, E.E.; Sharp, L.K.; Curtis, L.M.; Shalowitz, M.; Shannon, J.J.; Weiss, K.B. The association between community crime and childhood asthma prevalence in Chicago. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010, 104, 299–306.
[35]  Wilkins, R. PCCF+ Version 5D User’s Guide. Automated geographic coding based on the statistics Canada postal code Conversion files, including postal codes through September 2008 (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82F0086-XDB); Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 2009.
[36]  City of Winnipeg Community Area Profiles. 2009. Available online: http://www.winnipeg.ca/census/2001/Community%20Area/ (accessed on 18 November 2011).
[37]  Statistics Canada. 1996 Census of Population: All Tables, Winnipeg (157 areas) (table), 1996 Census of Population (43 Large Urban Centres, Census Tracts (neighbourhoods)) (database), Using E-STAT (distributor). Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada, 2009.
[38]  Beard, J.R.; Cerda, M.; Blaney, S.; Ahern, J.; Vlahov, D.; Galea, S. Neighborhood characteristics and change in depressive symptoms among older residents of New York City. Am. J. Public Health 2009, 99, 1308–1314.
[39]  Franzini, L.; Caughy, M.; Spears, W.; Eugenia Fernandez Esquer, M. Neighborhood economic conditions, social processes, and self-rated health in low-income neighborhoods in Texas: A multilevel latent variables model. Soc. Sci. Med. 2005, 61, 1135–1150, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.02.010.
[40]  Mair, C.; Diez Roux, A.V.; Morenoff, J.D. Neighborhood stressors and social support as predictors of depressive symptoms in the Chicago Community Adult Health Study. Health Place 2010, 16, 811–819.
[41]  To, T.; Gershon, A.; Wang, C.; Dell, S.; Cicutto, L. Persistence and remission in childhood asthma: A population-based asthma birth cohort study. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 2007, 161, 1197–1204.
[42]  MacLeod, K.E.; Gee, G.C.; Crawford, P.; Wang, M.C. Neighbourhood environment as a predictor of television watching among girls. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 2008, 62, 288–292.
[43]  Lightbody, J. The reform of a metropolitan government: The case of Winnipeg, 1971. Can. Public Policy/Anal. Politiques. 1978, 4, 489–504, doi:10.2307/3549974.
[44]  Dear, M. Los Angeles and the Chicago School: Invitation to a Debate. City Community 2002, 1, 5.
[45]  Wright, R.J.; Fisher, E.B. Putting Asthma into Context: Community Influences on Risk, Behavior, and Intervention. In Neighborhoods and Health; Ichiro, K., Lisa, F.B., Eds.; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2003.
[46]  Wright, R.J.; Steinbach, S.F. Violence: An unrecognized environmental exposure that may contribute to greater asthma morbidity in high risk inner-city populations. Environ. Health Perspect. 2001, 109, 1085–1089.
[47]  Wright, R.J.; Cohen, S.; Carey, V.; Weiss, S.T.; Gold, D.R. Parental stress as a predictor of wheezing in infancy. A Prospective birth-cohort study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2002, 165, 358–365.
[48]  Haczku, A.; Panettieri, R.A., Jr. Social stress and asthma: The role of corticosteroid insensitivity. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2010, 125, 550–558.
[49]  Curry, A.; Latkin, C.; Davey-Rothwell, M. Pathways to depression: The impact of neighborhood violent crime on inner-city residents in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Soc. Sci. Med. 2008, 67, 23–30, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.007.
[50]  Pittman, T. The Association Between Neigbourhood Stressors and Asthma Prevalence of School Children in Winnipeg. April 2011. M.S. Thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal