All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Determinants of Arsenicosis Patients’ Perception and Social Implications of Arsenic Poisoning through Groundwater in Bangladesh

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7103644

Keywords: logit model, social implication, perception, arsenicosis, Bangladesh

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients’ perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from the Matlab and Hajiganj Upzillas of Chandpur district which are known to be highly contaminated with arsenic in their underground water. Respondents informed that arsenic poisoning causes a wide range of social and psychological problems. Female respondents were less vulnerable in the case of social problems (p < 0.01) and more vulnerable for the psychological problems (p < 0.001) of arsenicosis than male respondents. The results based on logit analysis showed that education (p < 0.01) and household income (p < 0.05) were significantly correlated to respondents’ perception about arsenicosis. The arsenicosis related special program (s) needs a clear understanding of people’s perception about arsenic exposure for abating the health burden as well as social and psychological problems.

References

[1]  Some Drinking-Water Disinfectants and Contaminants, Including Arsenic. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Human.; IARC Monographs: Lyon, France, 2004; Volume 84, pp. 1–477.
[2]  Parvez, F; Chen, Y; Argos, M; Hussain, AZ; Momotaj, H; Dhar, R; van Green, A; Graziano, JH; Ahsan, H. Prevalence of arsenic exposure from drinking water and awareness of its health risks in a Bangladeshi population: Results from a large population-based study. Environ. Health Perspect?2006, 114, 355–359.
[3]  Maddison, D; Catala-Luque, R; Pearce, D. The Effects of the Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Bangladesh. Report Prepared for the Environment Division;; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
[4]  BGS; DPHE. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Bangladesh; British Geological Survey: Wallingford, UK, 2001; 2. Available online: http://www.bgs.ac.uk/arsenic/bphase2/reports.htm (accessed on 27 February 2007).
[5]  World Health Organization (WHO). Environmental Health Criteria 18, Arsenic; International Programme on Chemical Safety: Geneva, Switzerland, 1981; pp. 27–30.
[6]  Frisbie, SH; Ortega, R; Maynard, DM; Sarkar, B. The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh’s drinking water. Environ. Health Perspect?2002, 110, 1147–1153.
[7]  Chowdhury, UK; Biswas, BK; Chowdhury, TR; Samanta, G; Mandal, BK; Basu, GC; Chanda, CR; Lodh, D; Saha, KC; Mukherjee, SK; Roy, S; Kabir, S; Ouamruzzaman, Q; Chakaborti, D. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Environ. Health Perspect?2000, 108, 393–397.
[8]  Dhar, RK; Biawas, KB; Samanta, G. Ground water arsenic calamity in Bangladesh. Curr. Sci?1997, 73, 48–59.
[9]  Caldwell, BK; Caldwell, JC; Mitra, SN; Smith, W. Searching for an optimum solution to the Bangladesh arsenic crisis. Soc. Sci. Med?2003, 56, 2089–2096.
[10]  Hassan, MM; Atkins, PJ; Dunn, CE. Social implications of arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh. Soc. Sci. Med?2005, 61, 2201–2211.
[11]  Ahsan, H; Perrin, M; Ahman, A; Parvez, F; Stute, M; Zheng, Y. Associations between drinking water and urinary arsenic levels and skin lesions in Bangladesh. J. Occup. Environ. Med?2000, 2, 1195–1201.
[12]  Mazumder, DNG; Haque, R; Ghosh, N; De, BK; Santra, A; Chakraborty, D. Arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence of skin lesions in West Bengal, India. Int. J. Epidemiol?1998, 27, 871–877.
[13]  Smith, AH; Goycolea, M; Haque, R; Biggs, ML. Marked increase in bladder and lung cancer mortality in a region of northern Chile due to arsenic in drinking water. Am. J. Epidemiol?1998, 147, 660–669.
[14]  Wasserman, GA; Liu, X; Parvez, F; Ahsan, H; Factor-Litvak, P; Geen, VA. Water arsenic exposure and children’s intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environ. Health Perspect?2004, 112, 329–1333.
[15]  Mukherjee, SC; Rahman, MM; Chowdhury, UK; Sengupta, MK; Lodh, D; Chanda, CR. Neuropathy in arsenic toxicity from groundwater arsenic contamination in West Bengal. India. J. Environ. Sci. Health A. Tox. Hazard Subst. Environ. Eng?2003, 38, 165–183.
[16]  Ahmad, SA; Sayed, MH; Barua, S; Khan, MH; Faruquee, MH; Jalil, A. Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes. Environ. Health Perspect?2001, 109, 629–631.
[17]  Calderon, J; Navarro, ME; Jimenez-Capdeville, ME; Santos-Diaz, MA; Golden, A; Rodriguez-Leyva, I. Exposure to arsenic and lead and neuropsychological development in Mexican children. Environ. Res?2001, 85, 69–76.
[18]  Hadi, A. Fighting arsenic at the grassroots: Experience of BRAC’s community awareness initiative in Bangladesh. Health Policy Plan?2003, 18, 93–100.
[19]  Dhaka Community Hospital Trust. Arsenic Problem in Bangladesh; Dhaka Community Hospital: Dhaka, Bangladesh. Available online: http://www.dchtrust.org/arsenic_problem.htm (accessed on 7 May 2005).
[20]  Islam, ABMR; Sarker, MMR; Ahmad, SA. Arsenic exposure to rural population in Bangladesh. In Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases; Jean, JS, Bundschuh, J, Bhattacharya, P, Eds.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2010; pp. 286–287.
[21]  Gujarati, DN. Basic Econometrics, 3rd ed ed.; McGraw Hill Book Company: New York, NY, USA, 1995; pp. 554–563.
[22]  Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh; Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2008; pp. 82–84.
[23]  Crow, B; Sultana, F. Gender, class and access to water: Three cases in a poor and crowded delta. Soc. Nat. Res?2002, 15, 709–724.
[24]  Hanchett, S. Social Aspects of the Arsenic Contamination of Drinking Water: A Review of Knowledge and Practice in Bangladesh and West Bengal; Government of People’s Republic of Bangladesh: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2004.
[25]  World Health Organization (WHO). Towards an Assessment of the Socioeconomic Impact of Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2000. Available online: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/arsenic2/en/print.html (accessed on 18 June 2008).
[26]  Ahmed, CM. Impact of arsenic on the rural poor in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh Environment; Ahmed, MF, Tanveer, S, Badruzzaman, ABM, Eds.; BAPA: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2002; pp. 154–160.
[27]  Sarker, MMR. Determinates of arsenicosis patients treatment cost in rural Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Environ. Sci?2008, 14, 80–83.
[28]  Howard, G. Social Aspects of Access to Healthcare for Arsenicosis Patients; Arsenic Policy Support Unit: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2010. Available online: http://www.buet.ac.bd/itn/pages/apsudocs/social%20aspects%20of%20health%20care%20for%20arsenicosis%20patients.pdf (accessed on 22 September 2010).
[29]  Sultana, F. Gender concerns in arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: trends and challenges. In APSU Selected Papers on the Social Aspects of Arsenic and Arsenic Mitigation in Bangladesh; Arsenic Policy Support Unit: Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2006; pp. 53–84.
[30]  Bruns, BR; Meinzen-Dick, RS. Negotiating Water Rights; Vistaar Publishers: New Delhi, India, 2000.
[31]  Meinzen-Dick, R; Zwarteveen, M. Gendered participation in water management: Issues and illustrations from water users’ associations in South Asia. Agric. Human Value?1998, 15, 337–345.
[32]  Van Koppen, B; Mahmud, S. Women and Water-Pumps in Bangladesh: The Impact of Participation in Irrigation Groups on Women's Status; Intermediate Technology Publications: London, UK, 1996.
[33]  Eloundou-Enyegue, PM; Meekers, D; Calves, AE. From awareness to adoption: The effect of AIDS education and condom social marketing on condom use in Tanzania (1993–1996). J. Biosoc. Sci?2005, 37, 257–268.
[34]  Piechulek, H; Al-Sabbir, A; Mendoza-Aldana, J. Diarrhea and ARI in rural areas of Bangladesh. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health?2003, 34, 337–342.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus