All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch)

DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7083298

Keywords: atrazine, toxicity, C. punctatus, oxidative stress, environmental pollution, LC10-90

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC 50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L -1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC 10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC 50 = ~10.600 mg·L -1, 1/8 LC 50 = ~5.300 mg·L -1 and 1/10 LC 50 = ~4.238 mg·L -1) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.

References

[1]  Battaglin, WA; Thurman, EM; Kalkhoff, SJ; Porter, SD. Herbicides and transformation products in surface waters of the Midwestern United States. J. Am. Water Res. Assoc?2003, 39, 743–756, doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb04402.x.
[2]  Battaglin, WA; Rice, CK; Foazio, MJ; Salmons, S; Barry, RX. The occurrence of glyphosate, atrazine, and other pesticides in vernal pools and adjacent streams in Washington, DC, Maryland, Iowa and Wyoming 2005–2006. Environ. Monit. Assoc?2008, 155, 281–307.
[3]  Scrubner, EA; Thurman, EM; Goolsby, DA; Meyer, MT; Battaglin, WA; Kolpin, DW. Summary of significant results from studies of atrazine herbicides and their degradation products in surface water, groundwater, and precipitation in the Midwestern United States during the 1990s. In U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report; USGS: Lawrence, KS, USA, 2005; pp. 2005–5094.
[4]  Orme, S; Kegley, S. PAN Pesticide Database; Pesticide Action Network: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2004.
[5]  Perry, C. Source, extent and degradation of herbicides in a shallow water aquifer near Hesston, Kansas. In Water-Resources Investigation Report 91–4019; US Geological Survey: Lawrence, KA, USA, 1990.
[6]  Solomon, KR; Baker, DB; Richards, RP; Dixon, KR; Klaine, SJ; La Point, TW; Kendall, RJ; Weisskopf, CP; Giddings, JM; Giesy, JP; Hall, LW; Williams, WM. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of atrazine in North American surface waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem?1996, 15, 31–76, doi:10.1002/etc.5620150105.
[7]  Selim, H. Retention and runoff losses of atrazine and metribuzin in soil. J. Environ. Qual?2003, 32, 1058–1071, doi:10.2134/jeq2003.1058. 12809307
[8]  De Ventura Campo, B; de Angelis Fransceschi, D; Marin-Morales, MA. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the atrazine herbicide in Oreochromis niloticus (Perciformes, Cichlidae) detected by the micronuclei test and the comet assay. Biochem. Physiol?2008, 90, 42–51.
[9]  Yoder, J; Watson, M; Benson, WW. Lymphocytes chromosome analysis of agricultural workers during extensive occupational exposure to pesticides. Mutat. Res?1973, 21, 13–17, doi:10.1016/0165-7992(73)90020-1.
[10]  Weigand, C; Krause, E; Steinberg, C; Pflugmacher, S. Toxicokinetics of atrazine in embryos of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf?2001, 99, 199–205.
[11]  Ne?kovic, NK; Elezonic, I; Karan, V; Poleksic, V; Budimir, M. Acute and sub acute toxicity of atrazine to Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf?1993, 25, 173–182, doi:10.1006/eesa.1993.1016. 7682501
[12]  Lakra, WS; Nagpure, NS. Genotoxicological studies in fishes: A review. Indian J. Anim. Sci?2009, 79, 93–98.
[13]  Risso-de Facerney, C; Devaux, A; Lafaurie, M; Girard, JP; Bailly, B; Rahmani, R. Cadmium induces apoptosis and genotoxicity in rainbow trout hepatocytes through generation of reactive oxygen species. Aquatic Toxicol?2001, 53, 65–76, doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(00)00154-5.
[14]  Achuba, FI; Osakwe, SA. Petroleum-induced free radical toxicity in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish Physiol. Biochem?2003, 29, 97–103, doi:10.1023/B:FISH.0000035905.14420.eb.
[15]  Liu, Y; Zhang, Y; Liu, J; Huang, D. The role of reactive oxygen species in the herbicide acetachlor-induced DNA damage on Bufo-raddei tadpole liver. Aquatic Toxicol?2006, 78, 21–26, doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.01.016.
[16]  Monteiro, DA; Almeida, JA; Rantin, FT; Kalinin, AL. Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater characid fish Brycon cephalus, exposed to organophosphon insecticide Folisuper 600 (Methyl parathion). Comp. Biochem. Physiol?2006, 143, 141–149, doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.01.053.
[17]  Pe?a-Llopis, S; Ferrando, MD; Pe?a, JB. Fish tolerance to organophosphate-induced oxidative stress is dependent on the glutathione metabolism and enhanced by N-acetylcysteine. Aquatic Toxicol?2003, 65, 337–360, doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(03)00148-6.
[18]  Banudevi, S; Krishnamoorthy, G; Venkatataman, P; Vignesh, C; Aruldhas, MM; Arunakaran, J. Role of α-tocopherol on antioxidant status in liver, lung and kidney of PCP exposed male albino rats. Food Chem. Toxicol?2006, 44, 2040–2046, doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.017. 16979807
[19]  Pandey, S; Kumar, R; Sharma, S; Nagpure, NS; Sirivastava, SK; Verma, MS. Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf?2005, 61, 114–120, doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.08.004. 15814317
[20]  Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test, Document 203; OECD: Paris, France, 1992.
[21]  Pluta, HJ. Toxicity of several xenobiotics and waste water effluents measured with a new fish early life stage test. Ger. J. Applied Zool?1989, 76, 195–220.
[22]  Finney, DT. Probit Analysis; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1971.
[23]  Sharma, SK; Krishnamurthy, CR. Production of lipid peroxidation of brain. J. Neurochem?1968, 15, 147–149, doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1968.tb06187.x. 5637724
[24]  Misra, HP; Fridovich, I. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J. Biol. Chem?1972, 247, 3170–3175. 4623845
[25]  Clairborne, A. Catalase activity. In Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research; Greewald, AR, Ed.; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1995; pp. 237–242.
[26]  Massey, V; Williams, CH. On the reaction mechanism of yeast glutathione reductase. J. Biol. Chem?1965, 240, 4470–4481. 4378936
[27]  Lowry, OH; Rosebrough, NJ; Farr, AL; Randall, RJ. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem?1951, 193, 265–275. 14907713
[28]  Sprague, JB. Measurement of pollutant toxicity to fish I. Bioassay methods for acute toxicity. Water Res?1971, 3, 793–821.
[29]  Committee on Water Quality Criteria (CWQC). A Report of the Committee on Water Quality Research Series, EPA-R3–73–003, US Environmental Protection Agency Report; CWQC: Cincinnati, OH, USA, 1972.
[30]  NAS/NAE (1973) Water Quality Criteria, EPA-R3–033; US Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, USA, 1973.
[31]  IJC. New and Revised Great Lakes Water Quality Objectives. Great Lake Basin, Windsor; IJC: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1977.
[32]  CCREM. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines; Canadian Council of Resources and Environmental Ministry, Inland Waters Directorate, Environment Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1991.
[33]  Hart, WB; Weston, RF; Demann, JG. An apparatus for Oxygenating test solution in which fish are used as test animals for evaluating toxicity. Trans. Am. Fish Soc?1948, 75, 288.
[34]  Cavas, T; Ergene-G?zükara, S. Micronucleus test in fish cells, a bioassay for in situ monitoring of genotoxic pollution in the marine environment. Environ. Mol. Mutagen?2005, 46, 64–70, doi:10.1002/em.20130. 15880416
[35]  Lopez-Barea, J. Biomarkers to detect environmental pollution. Toxicol. Lett?1996, 88, 79.
[36]  Van Der Oost, R; Beyer, J; Vermeulen, NPE. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environ. Toxicol. Pharm?2003, 13, 57–149, doi:10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6.
[37]  Sunderam, RIM; Thompson, GB; Chapman, JC; Cheng, DMH. Acute and chronic toxicity of endosulfan to two Australian Cladocerans and their applicability in deriving water quality criteria. Arch. Environ. Cont. Toxicol?1994, 27, 541–545.
[38]  Lakota, S; Razska, A; Utracki, T; Chmiel, Z. Side effect of deltamethrin and cypermthrin in the environment of water biocenoses. Organika?1989, 71, 71–77.
[39]  Bathe, R; Ullmann, L; Sachsse, K. Determination of pesticide toxicity to fish. Berlin-Dahlem?1973, 37, 241–246.
[40]  Hussein, SY; El-Nasser, MA; Ahmed, SM. Comparative studies on the effects of herbicide Atrazine on freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus and Chrysichthys auratus at Assiut Egypt. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol?1996, 57, 503–510, doi:10.1007/s001289900218. 8672079
[41]  Abdul-Farah, M; Ateeq, B; Ali, MN; Ahmad, W. Studies on lethal concentrations and toxicity stress of some xenobiotics on aquatic organisms. Chemosphere?2004, 55, 257–265, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.10.063. 14761696
[42]  Gupta, PK; Khangant, BS; Durve, VS. The temperature dependence of the acute toxicity of copper to freshwater pond snail, Viviparus bengalensis L. Hydrobiologia?1981, 83, 461–464, doi:10.1007/BF02187041.
[43]  Young, RA. Biomedical discovery with DNA arrays. Cell?2000, 102, 9–15, doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00005-2. 10929708
[44]  Sprague, JB. Lethal concentrations of copper and Zinc for young Atlantic salmon. J. Fish Res. Board Can?1969, 21, 17.
[45]  Buikema, JR; Naider-Lehner, AL; Cairns, JR. Biological monitoring: Part IV. Toxicity testing. Environ. Mol. Mutagen?1982, 33, 239–262.
[46]  Kenega, EF. Aquatic test organism and methods useful for assessment of chronic toxicity of chemicals. In Analyzing the Hazard Evaluation Process; Dickson, KL, Maki, AW, Cairns, J, Jr, Eds.; American Fisheries Society: Washington, DC, USA, 1979.
[47]  Warren, CE. Biology and Water Pollution; W.B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 1997.
[48]  Pandey, RK; Singh, RN; Singh, S; Singh, NN; Das, VK. Acute toxicity bioassay of dimethoate on freshwater air breathing catfish Heteropneustus fossilis (Bloch). J. Environ. Biol?2009, 30, 437–440. 20120474
[49]  De Mel, GWJLMVTM; Pathiratne, A. Toxicity assessment of insecticides commonly used in rice pest management to the fry of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, a food fish culturable in rice fields. J. Appl. Icthyol?2005, 21, 146–150, doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2004.00607.x.
[50]  Tilak, KS; Veeraiah, K; Bhaskara, P; Butchiram, MS. Toxicity studies of Butachlor to the freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch). J. Environ. Biol?2007, 28, 285–487.
[51]  Ayoola, SO. Toxicity of glyphosate herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveline. African J. Agric. Res?2008, 3, 825–834.
[52]  Chandra, S. Toxic effect of Malathion on acetylcholinesterase activity of liver, brain and gills of freshwater catfish Heteropneutes fossilis. Environ. Conserv?2008, 9, 45–52.
[53]  Gül, S; Belge-Kurutas, E; Yildiz, E; Sahan, A; Doran, F. Pollution correlated modifications of liver antioxidant systems and histopathology of fish. (Cyprinidae) living in Seyhan Dan Lake. Turkey Environ. Int?2004, 30, 605–609, doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00059-X.
[54]  Avci, A; Kacmaz, M; Durak, I. Peroxidation in muscle and liver tissues from fish in a contaminated river due to petroleum refinery industry. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf?2005, 6, 101–105.
[55]  Atli, G; Alptekin, O; Tukel, S; Canlin, M. Response of catalase activity to Ag+, Cd+, Cr6+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ in five tissues of fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C?2006, 143, 218–224, doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.11.019.
[56]  Atif, F; Parvez, S; Pandey, S; Ali, M; Kaur, M; Rehman, H; Khan, HA; Raisuddin, S. Modulatory effect of Cadmium exposure on Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in Channa punctatus. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol?2005, 49, 371–377, doi:10.1007/s00244-003-9231-4. 16001157
[57]  ?im?ek-K?prücü, S; Yanar, E; Seker, E. Effects of Deltamethrin on antioxidant status and oxidative stress biomarkers in freshwater mussel Unio elongatulus euchres. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol?2008, 81, 253–257, doi:10.1007/s00128-008-9474-x. 18587520
[58]  Peebua, LP; Kosiyachinda, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M. Evaluation of alachlor herbicide impacts on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using biochemical biomarkers. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol?2007, 78, 138–141, doi:10.1007/s00128-007-9027-8. 17435964
[59]  Farombi, EO; Ajimoko, YR; Adelowo, OA. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in freshwater African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health?2008, 5, 423–427, doi:10.3390/ijerph5050423. 19151438
[60]  Lushchak, OV; Kubrak, OI; Storey, MJ; Storey, BK; Lushchak, IV. Low toxic herbicide roundup induces mild oxidative stress in gold fish. Chemosphere?2009, 76, 932–937, doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.04.045. 19450865
[61]  Shen, HM; Liu, ZG. JNK signaling pathway is a key modification in cell death mediated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Free Radic Biol. Med?2006, 40, 928–939, doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2005.10.056. 16540388
[62]  Yamano, T; Morita, S. Effects of pesticides on isolated hepatocytes, mitochondria and microsomes 11. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol?1995, 28, 1–7, doi:10.1007/BF00213961. 7717759
[63]  Sk, HU; Bhattacharya, S. Prevention of cadmium induced lipid peroxidation, depletion of some antioxidantive enzymes and glutathione by series of organoselenocyanates. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol?2006, 22, 298–308, doi:10.1016/j.etap.2006.04.004. 21783724
[64]  Filho, DW; Torresl, MA; Tribessl, TB; Pedresosa, RC; Soares, CHL. Influence of season and pollution on the antioxidant defenses on the Cichlid fish acara Geophagus brasiliensis. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res?2001, 34, 719–726. 11378659
[65]  Karakoc, FT; Hewer, A; Philips, DH; Gai?es, AF; Yuregir, G. Biomarkers of marine pollution observed in species of mullet living in two Eastern Mediterranean harbours. Biomarkers?1997, 2, 303–309, doi:10.1080/135475097231535.
[66]  Elia, AC; Waller, WT; Norton, SJ. Biochemical responses of Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus, Rafinesque) to atrazine induced oxidative stress. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol?2002, 68, 809–816, doi:10.1007/s00128-002-0027-4. 12012055
[67]  Langiano, VC; Martinez, CBR. Toxicity and effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C?2008, 147, 222–231.
[68]  Kono, I; Fridonch, Y. Superoxide radical inhibits catalase. J. Biol. Chem?1982, 257, 5751. 6279612
[69]  Saravanan, R; Revathi, K; Murthy, B. Lambda cyhalothrin induced alterations in antioxidant enzyme status of various tissues in freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus. Asian J. Microbiol. Biotech. Environ. Sci?2008, 10, 341–349.
[70]  Tchounwou, PB; Wilson, B; Ishaque, A; Ransome, R; Huang, MJ; Leszczynski, J. Toxicity assessment of atrazine and related triazine compounds in the microtox assay and computational modeling for their structure-activity relationship. Int. J. Mol. Sci?2000, 1, 63–74, doi:10.3390/ijms1040063.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus