A prediction in phylogeographic studies is that patterns of lineage diversity and timing will be similar within the same landscape under the assumption that these lineages have responded to past environmental changes in comparable ways. Eight invertebrate taxa from four different orders were included in this study of mainland New Zealand and Chatham Islands lineages to explore outcomes of island colonization. These comprised two orthopteran genera, one an endemic forest-dwelling genus of cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae, Talitropsis) and the other a grasshopper (Acrididae, Phaulacridum) that inhabits open grassland; four genera of Coleoptera including carabid beetles ( Mecodema), stag beetles ( Geodorcus), weevils ( Hadramphus) and clickbeetles ( Amychus); the widespread earwig genus Anisolabis (Dermaptera) that is common on beaches in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and an endemic and widespread cockroach genus Celatoblatta (Blattodea). Mitochondrial DNA data were used to reconstruct phylogeographic hypotheses to compare among these taxa. Strikingly, despite a maximum age of the Chathams of ~4 million years there is no concordance among these taxa, in the extent of genetic divergence and partitioning between Chatham and Mainland populations. Some Chatham lineages are represented by insular endemics and others by haplotypes shared with mainland populations. These diverse patterns suggest that combinations of intrinsic (taxon ecology) and extrinsic (extinction and dispersal) factors can result in apparently very different biogeographic outcomes.
Fleischer, R.C.; McIntosh, C.E.; Tarr, C.L. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: Using phylogeographic reconstructions and K–Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates. Mol. Ecol. 1998, 7, 533–545.
Toon, A.; Hughes, J.M.; Joseph, J. Multilocus analysis of Honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) highlights spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the influence of biogeographic barriers in the Australian monsoonal zone. Mol. Ecol. 2010, 19, 2980–2994.
Trewick, S.A.; Morgan-Richards, M. After the deluge: Mitochondrial DNA indicates Miocene radiation and Pliocene adaptation of tree and giant weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). J. Biogeogr. 2005, 32, 295–309.
Hutchison, M.A.S. Habitat Use, Seasonality and Ecology of Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Native Forest Remnants, North Island, New Zealand. Master Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2001.
Marris, J.W.M.; Johnson, P.J. A revision of the New Zealand click beetle genus Amychus Pascoe 1876 (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Denticollinae): With a description of a new species from the Three Kings Islands. Zootaxa 2010, 2331, 35–56.
Chinn, W.G.; Gemmell, N.J. Adaptive radiation within New Zealand endemic species of the cockroach genus Celatoblatta Johns (Blattidae): A response to Plio-Pleistocene mountain building and climate change. Mol. Ecol. 2004, 13, 1507–1518.
Heenan', P.B.; Mitchell, A.D.; de Lange, P.J.; Keeling, J.; Paterson, A.M. Late-Cenozoic origin and diversification of Chatham Islands endemic plant species revealed by analyses of DNA sequence data. N. Z. J. Bot. 2010, 48, 83–136.
Arensburger, P.; Simon, C.; Holsinger, K. Evolution and phylogeny of the New Zealand cicada genus Kikihia Dugdale (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae) with special reference to the origin of the Kermadec and Norfolk Islands' species. J. Biogeogr. 2004, 31, 1769–1783.
Nolan, L.; Hogg, I.A.; Sutherland, D.L.; Stevens, M.I.; Schnabel, K.E. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA variability within the New Zealand damselfly genera Xanthocnemis, Austrolestes, and Ischnura (Odonata). N. Z. J. Zool. 2007, 34, 371–380.
Trewick, S.A.; Goldberg, J.; Morgan-Richards, M. Fewer species of Argosarchus and Clitarchus stick insects (Phasmida, Phasmatinae): Evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Zool. Scr. 2005, 34, 438–491.
Trewick, S.A. Sympatric flightless rails Gallirallus dieffenbachii and G. modestus on the Chatham Islands, New Zealand; morphometrics and alternative evolutionary scenarios. J. R. Soc. N. Z. 1997, 27, 451–464.
Boon, W.M.; Kearvell, J.C.; Daugherty, C.H.; Chambers, G.K. Molecular Systematics and Conservation of Kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.); Department of Conservation: Wellington, New Zealand, 2001; Volume 176, pp. 1–46.
Craw, R.C. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Syst. Zool. 1988, 37, 291–310.