All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Insects  2011 

Exploring Phylogeographic Congruence in a Continental Island System

DOI: 10.3390/insects2030369

Keywords: New Zealand, Chatham Islands, insects, phylogeographic patterns, mitochondrial DNA, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Blattodea, Dermaptera

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


A prediction in phylogeographic studies is that patterns of lineage diversity and timing will be similar within the same landscape under the assumption that these lineages have responded to past environmental changes in comparable ways. Eight invertebrate taxa from four different orders were included in this study of mainland New Zealand and Chatham Islands lineages to explore outcomes of island colonization. These comprised two orthopteran genera, one an endemic forest-dwelling genus of cave weta (Rhaphidophoridae, Talitropsis) and the other a grasshopper (Acrididae, Phaulacridum) that inhabits open grassland; four genera of Coleoptera including carabid beetles ( Mecodema), stag beetles ( Geodorcus), weevils ( Hadramphus) and clickbeetles ( Amychus); the widespread earwig genus Anisolabis (Dermaptera) that is common on beaches in New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, and an endemic and widespread cockroach genus Celatoblatta (Blattodea). Mitochondrial DNA data were used to reconstruct phylogeographic hypotheses to compare among these taxa. Strikingly, despite a maximum age of the Chathams of ~4 million years there is no concordance among these taxa, in the extent of genetic divergence and partitioning between Chatham and Mainland populations. Some Chatham lineages are represented by insular endemics and others by haplotypes shared with mainland populations. These diverse patterns suggest that combinations of intrinsic (taxon ecology) and extrinsic (extinction and dispersal) factors can result in apparently very different biogeographic outcomes.


[1]  Rosen, D.E. Vicariant patterns and historical explanation in biogeography. Syst. Zool. 1978, 27, 159–188.
[2]  Zink, R.M.; Blackwell-Rago, R.C.; Ronquist, F. The shifting roles of dispersal and vicariance in biogeography. Proc. R. Soc. B. 2000, 267, 497–503.
[3]  Ebach, M.; Humphries, C.J.; Williams, D.M. Phylogenetic biogeography deconstructed. J. Biogeogr. 2003, 30, 1285–1296.
[4]  Taberlet, P.; Fumagalli, L.; Wust-Saucy, A.-G.; Cosson, J.-F. Comparative phylogeography and postglacial colonization routes in Europe. Mol. Ecol. 1998, 7, 453–464.
[5]  Crisp, M.; Cook, L.G.; Trewick, S.A. Hypothesis testing in biogeography. Trends Ecol. Evol. 2011, 26, 66–72.
[6]  Avise, J.C. Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species; Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2000.
[7]  Hewitt, G.M. Genetic consequences of climatic oscillations in the Quaternary. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 2004, 359, 183–195.
[8]  Fleischer, R.C.; McIntosh, C.E.; Tarr, C.L. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: Using phylogeographic reconstructions and K–Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates. Mol. Ecol. 1998, 7, 533–545.
[9]  Jordan, S.; Simon, C.; Foote, D; Polhemus, D. Molecular systematics and adaptive radiation in Hawaii's endemic damselfly genus Megalagrion (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Syst. Biol. 2003, 52, 89–109.
[10]  Carlquist, S. Island Biology; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1974.
[11]  Moritz, C.; Patton, J.L.; Schneider, C.J.; Smith, T.B. Diversification of rainforest faunas: An integrated molecular approach. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 2000, 31, 533–563.
[12]  Vittoz, P.; Engler, R. Seed dispersal distances: A typology based on dispersal modes and plant traits. Bot. Helv. 2007, 17, 109–124.
[13]  Toon, A.; Hughes, J.M.; Joseph, J. Multilocus analysis of Honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) highlights spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the influence of biogeographic barriers in the Australian monsoonal zone. Mol. Ecol. 2010, 19, 2980–2994.
[14]  Goldberg, J.; Trewick, S.A.; Paterson, A.M. Evolution of New Zealand's terrestrial fauna: A review of molecular evidence. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 2008, 363, 3319–3334.
[15]  Trewick, S.A.; Morgan-Richards, M. New Zealand biology. In Encyclopedia of Islands; Gillespie, R.G., Clague, D.A., Eds.; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2009; pp. 665–673.
[16]  Wallis, G.P.; Trewick, S.A. New Zealand phylogeography: Evolution on a small continent. Mol. Ecol. 2009, 18, 3548–3580.
[17]  Trewick, S.A.; Wallis, G.P.; Morgan-Richards, M. The invertebrate life of New Zealand: A phylogeographic approach. Insects 2011, 2, 297–325.
[18]  Goldberg, J.; Trewick, S.A.; Powlesland, R.G. Population structure and biogeography of Hemiphaga pigeons (Aves: Columbidae) on islands in the New Zealand region. J. Biogeogr. 2011, 38, 285–298.
[19]  Morgan-Richards, M.; Trewick, S.A.; Stringer, I.A. Geographic parthenogenesis and the common tea-tree stick insect of New Zealand. Mol. Ecol. 2010, 19, 1227–1238.
[20]  Trewick, S.A.; Gibb, G.C. Vicars, tramps and assembly of the New Zealand avifauna: A review of molecular phylogenetic evidence. Ibis 2010, 152, 226–253.
[21]  Goldberg, J. Speciation and Phylogeography in the New Zealand Archipelago. Ph.D. Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2010.
[22]  Trewick, S.A.; Morgan-Richards, M. After the deluge: Mitochondrial DNA indicates Miocene radiation and Pliocene adaptation of tree and giant weta (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). J. Biogeogr. 2005, 32, 295–309.
[23]  Stevens, G.R. New Zealand Adrift: The Theory of Continetal Drift in a New Zealand Setting; A H. & A.W. Reed LTD: London, UK, 1980.
[24]  Campbell, H.J.; Andrews, P.B.; Beu, A.G.; Maxwell, P.A.; Edwards, A.R.; Laird, M.G.; de Hornibrook, N.B.; Mildenhall, D.C.; Watters, W.A.; Buckeridge, J.S.; et al. Cretaous-Cenozoic Geology and Biostratigraphy of the Chatham Islands, New Zealand; Institute of Geology & Nuclear Science Monograph; INGS: Lower Hutt, New Zealand, 1993; Volume 2.
[25]  Campbell, H.J. Fauna and flora of the Chatham Islands: Less than 4 MY old? Geol. Soc. N. Z. Misc. Publ. 1998, 97, 15–16.
[26]  Campbell, H.J.; Begg, J.G.; Beu, A.G.; Carter, R.M.; Davies, G.; Holt, K.; Landis, C.; Wallace, C. On the turn of a scallop. Geol. Soc. N. Z. Misc. Publ. 2006, 121, 9.
[27]  Holt, K.A. The Quaternary History of Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Ph.D. Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2008.
[28]  Trewick, S.A. Molecular evidence for dispersal rather than vicariance as the origin of flightless insect species on the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 2000, 27, 1189–1200.
[29]  Hewitt, G.M. Speciation, hybrid zones and phylogeography—or seeing genes in space and time. Mol. Ecol. 2001, 10, 537–549.
[30]  Trewick, S.A.; Bland, K.J. Fire and slice: Paleogeography for biogeography at New Zealand's North Island/South Island juncture. J. R. Soc. N. Z. 2011. in press.
[31]  Sunnucks, P.; Hales, D.F. Numerous transposed sequences of mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I-II in aphids of the genus Sitobion (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 1996, 13, 510–524.
[32]  Simon, C.; Frati, F.; Beckenbach, A.; Crespi, B.; Liu, H.; Flook, P. Evolution, weighting and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 1994, 87, 651–701.
[33]  Rambaut, A. Se-Al: Sequence Alignment Editor, 1996. Available online: (accessed on 2008).
[34]  Ronquist, F.; Huelsenbeck, J.P. MrBayes3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 2003, 19, 1572–1574.
[35]  Guindon, S.; Gascuel, O. A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Syst. Biol. 2003, 52, 696–704.
[36]  Posada, D. jModelTest: Phylogenetic model averaging. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2008, 25, 1253–1256.
[37]  Swofford, D.L. PAUP*: Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods) Version 4; Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA, 1998.
[38]  Rozas, J.; Sánchez-DelBarrio, J.C.; Messequer, X.; Rozas, R. DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods. Bioinformatics 2003, 19, 2496–2497.
[39]  Nei, M. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics; Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1987.
[40]  Groll, E.K.; Günther, K.K. Ordnung Saltatoria (Orthoptera), Heuschrecken, Springschrecken. In Lehrbuch der Speziellen Zoologie, Band 1: Wirbellose Tiere, 5.Teil: Insecta. 2.Aufl.; Dathe, H.H., Ed.; Spektrum Verlag Heidelberg: Berlin, Germany, 2003; pp. 261–290.
[41]  Key, K.H.L. Taxonomy of the genus Phaulacridium and a related new genus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Invertebr. Syst. 1992, 6, 197–243.
[42]  Westerman, M.; Ritchie, J.M. The taxonomy, distribution and origins of two species of Phaulacridium (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the South Island of New Zealand. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 1984, 21, 283–298.
[43]  Hudson, L. A systematic revision of the New Zealand Dermaptera. J. R. Soc. N. Z. 1973, 3, 219–254.
[44]  Johns, P.M. The cockroaches of New Zealand. Rec. Canterbury Mus. 1966, 8, 93–136.
[45]  Britton, E.B. The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of New Zealand, Part III–A revision of the tribe Broscini. Trans. R. Soc. N. Z. 1949, 77, 533–581.
[46]  Larochelle, A.; Larivière, M.-C. Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera): Catalogue; Fauna of New Zealand; Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand, 2001; Volume 43, pp. 44–61.
[47]  Hutchison, M.A.S. Habitat Use, Seasonality and Ecology of Carabid Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Native Forest Remnants, North Island, New Zealand. Master Thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2001.
[48]  Holloway, B.A. A Systematic Revision of the New Zealand Lucanidae (Insecta: Coleoptera); Dominion Museum: Wellington, New Zealand, 1961.
[49]  Craw, R.C. Molytini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae); Fauna of New Zealand; Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln, Canterbury, New Zealand, 1999; Volume 39.
[50]  Marris, J.W.M.; Johnson, P.J. A revision of the New Zealand click beetle genus Amychus Pascoe 1876 (Coleoptera: Elateridae: Denticollinae): With a description of a new species from the Three Kings Islands. Zootaxa 2010, 2331, 35–56.
[51]  Chinn, W.G.; Gemmell, N.J. Adaptive radiation within New Zealand endemic species of the cockroach genus Celatoblatta Johns (Blattidae): A response to Plio-Pleistocene mountain building and climate change. Mol. Ecol. 2004, 13, 1507–1518.
[52]  Shepherd, L.D.; de Lange, P.J.; Perrie, L.R. Multiple colonizations of a remote oceanic archipelago by one species: How common is long-distance dispersal? J. Biogeogr. 2009, 36, 1972–1977.
[53]  Liggins, L.; Chapple, D.G.; Daugherty, C.H.; Ritchie, P.A. Origin and post-colonization evolution of the Chatham Islands skink (Oligosoma nigriplantare nigriplantare). Mol. Ecol. 2008, 17, 3290–3305.
[54]  Heenan', P.B.; Mitchell, A.D.; de Lange, P.J.; Keeling, J.; Paterson, A.M. Late-Cenozoic origin and diversification of Chatham Islands endemic plant species revealed by analyses of DNA sequence data. N. Z. J. Bot. 2010, 48, 83–136.
[55]  Vink, C.J.; Paterson, A.M. Combined molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses of the New Zealand wolf spider genus Anoteropsis (Araneae: Lycosidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2003, 28, 576–587.
[56]  Arensburger, P.; Simon, C.; Holsinger, K. Evolution and phylogeny of the New Zealand cicada genus Kikihia Dugdale (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae) with special reference to the origin of the Kermadec and Norfolk Islands' species. J. Biogeogr. 2004, 31, 1769–1783.
[57]  Nolan, L.; Hogg, I.A.; Sutherland, D.L.; Stevens, M.I.; Schnabel, K.E. Allozyme and mitochondrial DNA variability within the New Zealand damselfly genera Xanthocnemis, Austrolestes, and Ischnura (Odonata). N. Z. J. Zool. 2007, 34, 371–380.
[58]  Trewick, S.A.; Goldberg, J.; Morgan-Richards, M. Fewer species of Argosarchus and Clitarchus stick insects (Phasmida, Phasmatinae): Evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Zool. Scr. 2005, 34, 438–491.
[59]  Stevens, M.I.; Hogg, I.D. Population genetic structure of New Zealand's endemic corophiid amphipods: evidence for allopatric speciation. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 2004, 81, 119–133.
[60]  McGaughran, A.; Hogg, I.D.; Stevens, M.I.; Chadderton, W.L.; Winterbourn, M.J. Genetic divergence of three freshwater isopod species from southern New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 2006, 33, 23–30.
[61]  Trewick, S.A. Sympatric flightless rails Gallirallus dieffenbachii and G. modestus on the Chatham Islands, New Zealand; morphometrics and alternative evolutionary scenarios. J. R. Soc. N. Z. 1997, 27, 451–464.
[62]  Miller, H.C.; Lambert, D.M. A molecular phylogeny of New Zealand's Petroica (Aves: Petroicidae) species based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2006, 40, 844–855.
[63]  Boon, W.M.; Kearvell, J.C.; Daugherty, C.H.; Chambers, G.K. Molecular Systematics and Conservation of Kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.); Department of Conservation: Wellington, New Zealand, 2001; Volume 176, pp. 1–46.
[64]  Boon, W.M.; Robinet, O.; Rawlence, N.; Bretagnolle, V.; Norman, J.A.; Christidis, L.; Chambers, G.K. Morphological, behavioural and genetic differentiation within the Horned Parakeet (Eunymphicus cornutus) and its affinities to Cyanoramphus and Prosopeia. Emu 2008, 108, 251–260.
[65]  Johansen, S.; Hytteborn, H. A contribution to the discussion of biota dispersal with drift ice and driftwood in the North Atlantic. J. Biogeogr. 2001, 28, 105–115.
[66]  Trewick, S.A.; Paterson, A.M.; Campbell, H.J. Hello New Zealand. J. Biogeogr. 2007, 34, 1–6.
[67]  Craw, R.C. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Syst. Zool. 1988, 37, 291–310.
[68]  Campbell, H.J. Geology Chatham Islands: Heritage and Conservation, 2nd ed.; Miskelly, C., Ed.; Department of Conservation: Wellington, New Zealand, 2008; pp. 35–52.
[69]  Skarpaas, O.; Silverman, E.J.; Jongejans, E.; Shea, K. Are the best dispersers the best colonizers? Seed mass, dispersal and establishment in Carduus thistles. Evol. Ecol. 2011, 25, 155–169.
[70]  Homepage of Phoenix evolutionary ecology and genetics group. Available online: (accessed on 4 July 2011).


comments powered by Disqus