Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of sweet corn/soybean intercropping on yield, agronomic indices, and nutrient and radiation use efficiency of sweet corn. Results show a high land equivalent ratio (1.07) for sweet corn/soybean intercropping, indicating a certain degree of yield advantage. Compared with the monoculture, the intercropping significantly increases sweet corn 1000-grain weight by 17.88%, economic benefit by 24.08%, and nutrient use efficiency by 54.09%. Intercropping positively influences radiation use efficiency during the later stage of growth. There is 28.44% increase in radiation use efficiency 55 days after sowing. Therefore sweet corn/soybean intercropping has significant economic and environmental benefits. It not only improves population structure and resource use efficiency of sweet corn, but also reduces fertilizer application.