Design of A Sustainable Building: A Conceptual Framework for Implementing Sustainability in the Building Sector
Keywords: sustainable building, conceptual framework, resource conservation, cost efficiency, human adaptation
This paper presents a conceptual framework aimed at implementing sustainability principles in the building industry. The proposed framework based on the sustainable triple bottom line principle, includes resource conservation, cost efficiency and design for human adaptation. Following a thorough literature review, each principle involving strategies and methods to be applied during the life cycle of building projects is explained and a few case studies are presented for clarity on the methods. The framework will allow design teams to have an appropriate balance between economic, social and environmental issues, changing the way construction practitioners think about the information they use when assessing building projects, thereby facilitating the sustainability of building industry.
[ 1] Halliday, S. Sustainable Construction; Butterworth Heinemann: London, UK, 2008.
[ 2] Barrett, P.S.; Sexton, M.G.; Green, L. Integrated delivery systems for sustainable construction. Build. Res. Inf. 1999, 27, 397–404.
[ 3] Abidin, N.Z. Investigating the awareness and application of sustainable construction concept by Malaysian developers. Habitat Int. 2010, 34, 421–426.
[ 4] Ortiz, O.; Castells, F.; Sonnemann, G. Sustainability in the construction industry: A review of recent developments based on LCA Constr. Build. Mater. 2009, 23, 28–39.
[ 5] Ortiz, O.; Pasqualino, J.C.; Castells, F. Environmental performance of construction waste: Comparing three scenarios from a case study in Catalonia, Spain. Waste Manag. 2010, 30, 646–654.
[ 6] John, G.; Clements-Croome, D.; Jeronimidis, G. Sustainable building solutions: A review of lessons from natural world. Build. Environ. 2005, 40, 319–328.
[ 7] Bainbridge, D.A. Sustainable building as appropriate technology. In Building without Borders: Sustainable Construction for the Global Village; Kennedy, J., Ed.; New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, Canada, 2004; pp. 55–84.
[ 8] Ugwu, O.O.; Kumaraswamy, M.M.; Wong, A.; Ng, S.T. Sustainability appraisal in infrastructure projects (SUSAIP) Part 1. Development of indicators and computational methods. Autom. Construct. 2006, 15, 239–251, doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2005.05.006.
[ 9] Matthews, E.; Amann, C.; Fischer-Kowalski, M.; Huttler, W.; Kleijn, R.; Moriguchi, Y.; Ottke, C.; Rodenburg, E.; Rogich, D.; Schandl, H.; Schutz, H.; van der Voet, E.; Weisz, H. The Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies; World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2000. Available online: http://pdf.wri.org/weight_of_nations.pdf (accessed on 24 May 2009).
[ 10] Ilha, M.S.O.; Oliveira, L.H.; Gon？alves, O.M. Environmental assessment of residential buildings with an emphasis on water conservation. Build. Serv. Eng. Res. Technol. 2009, 30, 15–26.
[ 11] Kukadia, V.; Hall, D.J. Improving Air Quality in Urban Environments: Guidance for the Construction Industry; Building Research Establishment (BRE) Bookshop, CRC Ltd.: London, UK, 2004.
[ 12] Pitt, M.; Tucker, M.; Riley, M.; Longden, J. Towards sustainable construction: Promotion and best practices. Construct. Innov. Inf. Process Manag. 2009, 9, 201–224.
[ 13] Yahya, K.; Boussabaine, H. Quantifying environmental impacts and eco-costs from brick waste. J. Archit. Eng. Des. Manag. 2010, 6, 189–206.
[ 14] Zimmermann, M.; Althaus, H.J.; Haas, A. Benchmarks for sustainable construction: A contribution to develop a standard. Energy Build. 2005, 37, 1147–1157.
[ 15] Worldwatch Institute. State of the World, A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. Worldwatch Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 2003. Available online: http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/ESW03A.pdf (accessed on 2 May 2012).
[ 16] Holton, I.; Glass, J.; Price, A. Developing a successful sector sustainability strategy: Six lessons from the UK construction products industry. Corp. Soc. Responsib. Envrion. Manag. 2008, 15, 29–42.
[ 17] Ding, G.K.C. Sustainable construction—The role of environmental assessment tools. J. Environ. Manag. 2008, 86, 451–464.
[ 18] Nelms, C.E.; Russell, A.D.; Lence, B.J. Assessing the performance of sustainable technologies: A framework and its application. Build. Res. Inf. 2007, 35, 237–251.
[ 19] Osmani, M.; Glass, J.; Price, A.D.F. Architects’ perspectives on construction waste reduction by design. Waste Manag. 2008, 28, 1147–1158.
[ 20] Burgan, B.A.; Sansom, M.R. Sustainable steel construction. J. Condtruct. Steel Res. 2006, 62, 1178–1183.
[ 21] Ofori, G. Sustainable construction: Principles and a framework for attainment. Construct. Manag. Econ. 1998, 16, 141–145.
[ 22] Shen, L.; Tam, V.; Tam, L.; Ji, Y. Project feasibility study: The key to successful implementation of sustainable and socially responsible construction management practice. J. Clean. Prod. 2010, 18, 254–259.
[ 23] Ruggieri, L.; Cadena, E.; Martinez-Blanco, J.; Gasol, C.M.; Rieradevall, J.; Gabarrell, X. Recovery of organic wastes in the Spanish wine industry. Technical, economic and environmental analyses of the composting process. J. Clean. Prod. 2009, 17, 830–838, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.12.005.
[ 24] Asokan, P.; Osmani, M.; Price, A.D.F. Assessing the recycling potential of glass fibre reinforced plastic waste in concrete and cement composites. J. Clean. Prod. 2009, 17, 821–829.
[ 25] Tam, W.Y.V. Comparing the implementation of concrete recycling in the Australian and Japanese construction industries. J. Clean. Prod. 2009, 17, 688–702.
[ 26] Tseng, M.L.; Yuan-Hsu, L.; Chiu, A.S.F. Fuzzy AHP based study of cleaner production implementation in Taiwan PWB manufacturer. J. Clean. Prod. 2009, 17, 1249–1256.
[ 27] Turk, A.M. The benefits associated with ISO 14001 certification for construction firms: Turkish case. J. Clean. Prod. 2009, 17, 559–569.
[ 28] Tam, V.W.Y.; Tam, C.M. Evaluations of existing waste recycling methods: A Hong Kong study. Build. Envrion. 2006, 41, 1649–1660.
[ 29] Tam, W.Y.V.; Tam, C.M.; Zeng, S.X. Towards adoption of prefabrication in construction. Build. Envrion. 2007, 42, 36–54.
[ 30] Hill, R.C.; Bowen, P.A. Sustainable construction: Principles and a framework for attainment. Construct. Manag. Econ. 1997, 15, 223–239.
[ 31] WCED. Our Common Future; World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1987.
[ 32] DETR. Building a Better Quality of life: Strategy for more Sustainable Construction; Eland House: London, UK, 2000.
[ 33] Miyatake, Y. Technology development and sustainable construction. J. Manag. Eng. 1996, 12, 23–27.
[ 34] Cole, R.; Larsson, K. GBC ’98 and GB tool. Build. Res. Inf. 1999, 27, 221–229.
[ 35] Kibert, C.J. Sustainable Construction: Green Building Design and Delivery, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2008.
[ 36] Hydes, K.; Creech, L. Reducing mechanical equipment cost: The economics of green design. Build. Res. Inf. 2000, 28, 403–407.
[ 37] Pettifer, G. Gifford Studios—A Case Study in Commercial Green Construction. In Proceedings of the CIBSE National Conference on Delivering Sustainable Construction, London, UK, 2004.
[ 38] Asif, M.; Muneer, T.; Kelly, R. Life cycle assessment: A case study of a dwelling home in Scotland. Build. Environ. 2007, 42, 1391–1394.
[ 39] Wilson, A.; Uncapher, J.L.; McManigal, L.; Lovins, H.L.; Cureton, M.; Browning, W.D. Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 1998.
[ 40] Graham, P. Building Ecology—First Principles for a Sustainable Built Environment; Blackwell, Publishing: Oxford, UK, 2003.
[ 41] Schimschar, S.; Blok, K.; Boermans, T.; Hermelink, A. Germany’s path towards nearly zero-energy buildings—Enabling the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the building stock. Energy Policy 2011, 39, 3346–3360.
[ 42] Lenzen, M.; Treloar, G.J. Embodied energy in buildings: Wood versus concrete-reply to Borjesson and Gustavsson. Energy Policy 2002, 30, 249–255, doi:10.1016/S0301-4215(01)00142-2.
[ 43] Lee, W.L.; Chen, H. Benchmarking Hong Kong and China energy codes for residential buildings. Energy Build. 2008, 40, 1628–1636.
[ 44] Sasnauskaite, V.; Uzsilaityte, L.; Rogoza, A. A sustainable analysis of a detached house heating system throughout its life cycle. A case study. Strateg. Prop. Manag. 2007, 11, 143–155.
[ 45] Dimoudi, A.; Tompa, C. Energy and environmental indicators related to construction of office buildings. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2008, 53, 86–95.
[ 46] Thormark, C. The effect of material choice on the total energy need and recycling potential of a building. Build. Envrion. 2006, 41, 1019–1026.
[ 47] Huberman, N.; Pearlmutter, D. A life cycle energy analysis of building materials in the Negev desert. Energy Build. 2008, 40, 837–848.
[ 48] Al-Homoud, M.S. Performance characteristics and practical applications of common building thermal insulation materials. Build. Envrion. 2005, 40, 353–366.
[ 49] El Razaz, Z. Design for dismantling strategies. J. Build. Apprais. 2010, 6, 49–61.
[ 50] Carlisle, N.; Elling, J.; Penney, T. A Renewable Energy Community: Key Elements; National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report, NREL/TP-540-42774; US Department of Energy: Washington, DC, USA, 2008. Available online: http://www.chemkeys.com/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2008/09/renewable-energy-key-elements.pdf (accessed on 2 May 2012).
[ 51] Spence, R.; Mulligan, H. Sustainable development and the construction industry. Habitat Int. 1995, 19, 279–292.
[ 52] Abeysundara, U.G.Y.; Babel, S.; Gheewala, S. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka. Build. Envrion. 2009, 44, 997–1004.
[ 53] Coventry, S.; Shorter, B.; Kingsley, M. Demonstrating Waste Minimisation Benefits in Construction; CIRIA C536; Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA): London, UK, 2001.
[ 54] Greenwood, R. Construction Waste Minimization—Good Practice Guide; CriBE (Centre for Research in the Build Environment): Cardiff, UK, 2003.
[ 55] Poon, C.S.; Yu, A.T.W.; Jaillon, L. Reducing building waste at construction sites in Hong Kong. Construct. Manag. Econ. 2004, 22, 461–470.
[ 56] Baldwin, A.; Poon, C.; Shen, L.; Austin, A.; Wong, I. Designing out Waste in High-Rise Residential Buildings: Analysis of Precasting and Prefabrication Methods and Traditional Construction. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Asia-European Sustainable Urban DevelopmentChongqingChinaCentre for Sino-European Sustainable Building Design and Construction, Beijing, China, 2006. Runming, Y., Baizhan, L., Stammers, K., Eds.;
[ 57] Esin, T.; Cosgun, N. A study conducted to reduce construction waste generation in Turkey. Build. Envrion. 2007, 42, 1667–1674.
[ 58] Pimenteira, C.A.P.; Carpio, L.G.T.; Rosa, L.P.; Tolmansquim, M.T. Solid wastes integrated management in Rio de Janeiro: Input-output analysis. Waste Manag. 2005, 25, 539–553.
[ 59] Marchettini, N.; Ridolfi, R.; Rustici, M. An environmental analysis for comparing waste management options and strategies. Waste Manag. 2007, 27, 562–571.
[ 60] Peng, C.L.; Scorpio, D.E.; Kibert, C.J. Strategies for successful construction and demolition waste in recycling operations. J. Construct. Manag. Econ. 1997, 15, 49–58.
[ 61] Tam, W.Y.V.; Tam, C.M. Reuse of Construction and Demolition Waste in Housing Development; Nova Science Publishers, Inc.: Hauppauge, NY, USA, 2008.
[ 62] Curwell, S.; Cooper, I. The implications of urban sustainability. Build. Res. Inf. 1998, 26, 17–28.
[ 63] da Rocha, C.G.; Sattler, M.A. A discussion on the reuse of building components in Brazil: An analysis of major social, economical and legal factors. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2009, 54, 104–112.
[ 64] Mora, E. Life cycle, sustainability and the transcendent quality of building materials. Build. Envrion. 2007, 42, 1329–1334.
[ 65] Malholtra, V.M. Introduction: Sustainable developement and concrete technology. Concr. Int. 2002, 24, 22.
[ 66] De Silva, N.; Dulaimi, M.F.; Ling, F.Y.Y.; Ofori, G. Improving the maintainability of buildings in Singapore. Build. Envrion. 2004, 39, 1243–1251.
[ 67] Godfaurd, J.; Clements-Croome, D.; Jeronimidis, G. Sustainable building solutions: A review of lessons from the natural world. Build. Envrion. 2005, 40, 319–328.
[ 68] Kim, J.; Rigdon, B. Qualities, Use, and Examples of Sustainable Building Materials; National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education: Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 2008; pp. 48109–41115. Available online: http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/architecture.html (accessed 10 November 2008).
[ 69] UNESCO. Water for People, Water for Life: The United Nations World Water Development Report; United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization & Berghahn Books: Barcelona, Spain, 2003.
[ 70] McCormack, M.S.; Treloar, G.J.; Palmowski, L.; Crawford, R.H. Modelling direct and indirect water consumption associated with construction. Build. Res. Inf. 2007, 35, 156–162.
[ 71] Roodman, D.M.; Lenssen, N. A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns are Transforming Construction; Worldwatch Paper 124; Worldwatch Institute: Washington, DC, USA, 1995.
[ 72] Sev, A. How can the construction industry contribute to sustainable development? A conceptual framework. Sustain. Dev. 2009, 17, 161–173.
[ 73] Mendler, S.F.; Odell, W. The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design; John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA; p. 2000.
[ 74] Brown, C. Residential Water Conservation Projects: Summary Report; Report HUD-PDR-903; Prepared for U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research: Washington, DC, USA, 1984.
[ 75] Haberl, H. Human appropriation of net primary production and species diversity in agricultural landscapes. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2004, 102, 213–218.
[ 76] Oberg, M. Integrated Life Cycle Design—Applied to Concrete Multidwelling Buildings; Lund University, Division of Building Materials: Lund, Sweden, 2005.
[ 77] Woodward, D.G. Life cycle costing—Theory, information acquisition and application. Proj. Manag. 1997, 15, 335–344.
[ 78] Giudice, F.; La Rosa, G.; Risitano, A. Materials selection in the Life-Cycle Design process: A method to integrate mechanical and environmental performances in optimal choice. Mater.Des. 2005, 26, 9–20.
[ 79] San-Jose, J.T.L.; Cuadrado, R.J. Industrial building design stage based on a system approach to their environmental sustainability. Construct. Build. Mater. 2010, 24, 438–447.
[ 80] Emmitt, S.; Yeomans, D.T. Specifying Buildings: A Design Management Perspective, 2nd ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008.
[ 81] Kohn, E.; Katz, P. Building Type Basics for Office Buildings; Wiley: New York, NY, USA, 2002.
[ 82] Innes, S. Developing Tools for Designing Out Waste Pre-Site and Onsite. In Proceedings of Minimizing Construction Waste Conference: Developing Resource Efficiency and Waste Minimization in Design and Construction, New Civil Engineer, London, UK, 2004.
[ 83] Arpke, A.; Strong, K. A comparison of life cycle cost analyses for a typical college using subsidized versus full-cost pricing of water. Ecol. Econ. 2006, 58, 66–78.
[ 84] Markarian, J. Wood-plastic composites: Current trends in materials and processing. Plast. Addit. Compd. 2005, 7, 20–26.
[ 85] Adgate, J.L.; Ramachandran, G.; Pratt, G.C.; Waller, L.A.; Sexton, K. Spatial and temporal variability in outdoor, indoor, and personal PM2.5 exposure. Atmos. Environ. 2002, 36, 3255–3265.
[ 86] Oral, G.K.; Yener, A.K.; Bayazit, N.T. Building envelope design with the objective to ensure thermal, visual and acoustic comfort conditions. J. Build. Environ. 2004, 39, 281–287.
[ 87] Edwards, B. Benefits of green offices in the UK: Analysis from examples built in the 1990s. Sustain. Dev. 2006, 14, 190–204.
[ 88] Bagchi, A.; Kodur, V.K.R.; Mousavi, S. Review of post-earthquake fire hazard to building structures. Can. J. Civil Eng. 2008, 35, 689–698.
[ 89] Marzbali, M.H.; Abdullah, A.; Razak, N.A.; Tilaki, M.J.M. A review of the effectiveness of crime prevention by design approaches towards sustainable development. J. Sustain. Dev. 2011, 4, 160–172.
comments powered by Disqus. comments powered by