All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Publish in OALib Journal
ISSN: 2333-9721
APC: Only $99

ViewsDownloads

Relative Articles

Incidence and Epidemiology of Hospitalized Influenza Cases in Rural Thailand during the Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic, 2009–2010

Burden of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza-Associated Hospitalization during and after 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 Pandemic in a Rural Community in India

Reconstruction of the Evolutionary Dynamics of the A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Virus in Italy during the Pandemic and Post-Pandemic Phases

Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Seroprevalence in Sweden before and after the Pandemic and the Vaccination Campaign in 2009

The Spread of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Victorian School Children in 2009: Implications for Revised Pandemic Planning

Association of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Infection in Critically Ill Macedonian Patients

Usefulness of health registries when estimating vaccine effectiveness during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in Norway

Evaluation of Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assays Compared to Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09

Full genomic analysis of an influenza A (H1N2) virus identified during 2009 pandemic in Eastern India: evidence of reassortment event between co-circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 and A/Brisbane/10/2007-like H3N2 strains

Polymorphisms at Residue 222 of the Hemagglutinin of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: Association of Quasi-Species to Morbidity and Mortality in Different Risk Categories

More...
PLOS ONE  2012 

Dynamic Patterns of Circulating Seasonal and Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Viruses From 2007–2010 in and around Delhi, India

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029129

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Influenza surveillance was carried out in a subset of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) presenting at an Employee Health Clinic (EHS) at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (urban) and pediatric out patients department of civil hospital at Ballabhgarh (peri-urban), under the Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP) of AIIMS, in Delhi region from January 2007 to December 2010. Of the 3264 samples tested, 541 (17%) were positive for influenza viruses, of which 221 (41%) were pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 168 (31%) were seasonal influenza A, and 152 (28%) were influenza B. While the Influenza viruses were detected year-round, their types/subtypes varied remarkably. While there was an equal distribution of seasonal A(H1N1) and influenza B in 2007, predominance of influenza B was observed in 2008. At the beginning of 2009, circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses was observed, followed later by emergence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with co-circulation of influenza B viruses. Influenza B was dominant subtype in early 2010, with second wave of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in August-September, 2010. With the exception of pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009, the peaks of influenza activity coincided primarily with monsoon season, followed by minor peak in winter at both urban and rural sites. Age group analysis of influenza positivity revealed that the percent positivity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus was highest in >5–18 years age groups (OR 2.5; CI = 1.2–5.0; p = 0.009) when compared to seasonal influenza. Phylogenetic analysis of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 from urban and rural sites did not reveal any major divergence from other Indian strains or viruses circulating worldwide. Continued surveillance globally will help define regional differences in influenza seasonality, as well as, to determine optimal periods to implement influenza vaccination programs among priority populations.

References

[1]  World Health Organization. Acute Respiratory Infections: Influenza (2007) Available: http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/dise?ases/ari/en/index.html. Accessed 15 March 2011.
[2]  Simonsen L (1999) The global impact of influenza on morbidity and mortality. Vaccine 17: S3–10.
[3]  Ortiz JR, Sotomayor V, Uez OC, Oliva O, Bettels D, et al. (2009) Strategy to enhance influenza surveillance worldwide. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 1271–1278.
[4]  Rambaut A, Pybus OG, Nelson MI, Viboud C, Taubenberger JK, et al. (2008) The genomic and epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus. Nature 453: 615–619.
[5]  Moura FA (2010) Influenza in the tropics. Curr Opin Infect Dis 23: 415–420.
[6]  Viboud C, Alonso WJ, Simonsen L (2006) Influenza in tropical regions. PLoS Med 3: e89.
[7]  Mathews JD, Chesson JM, McCaw JM, McVernon J (2009) Understanding influenza transmission, immunity and pandemic threats. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 3: 143–149.
[8]  Brooks WA, Goswami D, Rahman M, Nahar K, Fry AM, et al. (2010) Influenza is a major contributor to childhood pneumonia in a tropical developing country. Pediatr Infect Dis J 29: 216–221.
[9]  Simmerman JM, Uyeki T (2008) The burden of influenza in East and Southeast Asia: a review of the English language literature. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 2: 81–92.
[10]  Park AW, Glass K (2007) Dynamic patterns of avian and human influenza in east and southeast Asia. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 543–8.
[11]  Leo YS, Lye DC, Barkham T, Krishnan P, Seow P, et al. (2010) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 surveillance and prevalence of seasonal influenza, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 103–5.
[12]  Simmerman JM, Chittaganpitch M, Levy J, Chantra S, Maloney S, et al. (2009) Incidence, seasonality and mortality associated with influenza pneumonia in Thailand: 2005–2008. PLoS One 4: e7767.
[13]  Blair PJ, Wierzba TF, Touch S, Vonthanak S, Xu S, et al. (2010) Influenza epidemiology and characterization of influenza viruses in patients seeking treatment for acute fever in Cambodia. Epidemiol Infect 138: 199–209.
[14]  Tang JWT, Lee CK, Lee HK, Loh TP, Chiu L, Tambyah PA (2010) Tracking the Emergence of pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 and its interaction with seasonal Influenza viruses in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 39: 291–4.
[15]  Chadha MS, Broor S, Gunassekaran CP, Krishnan A, Chawla-Sarkar M, et al. (2011) Multi-site virological influenza surveillance in India: 2004–2008. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00293.x.
[16]  Dowell SF (2001) Seasonal variation in host susceptibility and cycles of certain infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 369–74.
[17]  Lofgren E, Fefferman NH, Naumov YN, Gorski J, Naumova EN (2007) Influenza seasonality: underlying causes and modeling theories. J Virol 81: 5429–36.
[18]  Dawood FS, Jain S, Finelli L, Shaw MW, Lindstrom S, et al. (2009) Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. Emergence of a novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Engl J Med 360: 2605–15.
[19]  Broor S, Gupta S, Mohapatra S, Kaushik S, Mir MA, Baliyarsingh B, et al. (2011) Emergence of 2009A/H1N1 cases in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00274.x.
[20]  Mukherjee A, Roy T, Agrawal AS, Sarkar M, Lal R, et al. (2010) Prevalence and epidemiology of pandemic H1N1 strains in hospitals of eastern India. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 2: 171–4.
[21]  Viboud C, Tam T, Fleming D, Handel A, Miller MA, et al. (2006) Transmissibility and mortality impact of epidemic and pandemic influenza, with emphasis on the unusually deadly 1951 epidemic. Vaccine 24: 6701–6707.
[22]  Influenza update (2010) WHO Global Disease and Response Alert. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza?/2010_12_17_GIP_surveillance/en/index.ht?ml. Accessed on 15 March 2011.
[23]  Russell CA, Jones TC, Barr IG, Cox NJ, Garten RJ, et al. (2008) The global circulation of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) viruses. Science 320: 340–6.
[24]  Nelson M, Spiro D, Wentworth D, Beck E, Fan J, et al. (2009) The early diversification of influenza A/H1N1pdm. PLoS Curr 1: RRN1126.
[25]  Potdar VA, Chadha MS, Jadav SM, Mullick J, Cherian SS, et al. (2010) Genetic characterization of the influenza a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus isolates from India. PloS One 5: e9693.
[26]  Mullick J, Cherian SS, Potdar VA, Chadha MS, Mishra AC (2011) Evolutionary dynamics of the influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with emphasis on Indian isolates: Evidence for adaptive evolution in the HA gene. Infect Genet Evol 11: 997–1005.
[27]  Mir MA, Lal RB, Sullender W, Krishnan A, Singh Y, Broor S (2011) Genetic Diversity of HA1 domain of hemagglutinin gene of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 viruses in north India. J Med Virol. In Press.
[28]  Shaman J, Kohn M (2009) Absolute humidity modulates influenza survival, transmission, and seasonality. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 3243–3248.
[29]  van Riet E, Adegnika AA, Retra K, Viera R, Tielens AG, et al. (2007) Cellular and humoral responses to influenza in Gabonese children living in rural and semi-urban areas. J Infect Dis 196: 1671–1678.
[30]  Simonsen L, Clarke M, Schonberger L, Adren N, Cox N, et al. (1998) Pandemic versus epidemic influenza mortality: a pattern of changing age distribution. J Infect Dis 178: 53–60.
[31]  Greer AL, Tuite A, Fisman DN (2010) Age, influenza pandemics and disease dynamics. Epidemiol Infect 138: 1542–1549.
[32]  Das RR, Sami A, Lodha R, Jain R, Broor S, et al. (2010) Clinical profile and outcome of swine flu in Indian children. Indian Pediatr. pii: S097475590900125-1.
[33]  Kelly H, Grant K (2009) Interim analysis of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in Australia: surveillance trends, age of infection and effectiveness of seasonal vaccination. Euro Surveill 14: pii: 19288.
[34]  Bansal S, Pourbohloul B, Hupert N, Grenfell B, Meyers LA (2010) The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza. PLoS One 5: e9360.
[35]  Koul P, Mir MM, Bali NK, Chawla-Sarkar M, Sarkar M, et al. (2011) Pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses among patients with acute respiratory illness in Kashmir (India). Influenza Other Respi Viruses. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00261.x.
[36]  CDC protocol of real-time RTPCR for swine influenza A(H1N1) (2009) Available: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publica?tions/swineflu/CDCrealtimeRTPCRprotocol_?20090428.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2011.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus