A three-year (2006-2008) field experiment was conducted at Swift Current and Star City in Saskatchewan to determine the short-term in-fluence of land-applied anaerobically digested swine manure (ADSM), conventionally treated swine manure (CTSM) and N fertilizer on total organic C (TOC), total organic N (TON), light fraction organic C (LFOC), light fraction organic N (LFON) and pH in the 0 - 7.5 and 7.5 - 15 cm soil layers, and ammonium-N, nitrate-N, extractable P, exchangeable K and sulphate-S in the 0 - 15, 15 - 30, 30 - 60, 60 - 90 and 90 - 120 cm soil layers. Treatments included spring and autumn applications of CTSM and ADSM at a 1x rate (10,000 and 7150 L·ha-1, respectively) applied each year, a 3x rate (30,000 and 21,450 L·ha-1, respectively) applied once at the beginning of the experiment, plus a treatment receiving commercial fertilizer (UAN at 60 kg·N·ha-1·yr-1) and a zero-N control. There was no effect of swine manure rate, type and application time on soil pH. Mass of TOC and TON in the 15 cm soil layer increased significantly with swine manure application compared to the control, mainly at the Swift Current site, with greater increases from 3x rate than 1x rate (by 2.21 Mg·C·ha-1 and 0.167 Mg·N·ha-1). Compared to the control, mass of LFOC and LFON in the 15 cm soil layer increased with swine manure application at sites, with greater increases from 3x rate than 1x rate (by 287 kg·C·ha-1 and 26 kg·N·ha-1 at Star City, and by 194 kg·C·ha-1 and 19·kg·N ha-1 at Swift Current). Mass of TOC and TON in soil layer was tended to be greater with ADSM than CTSM, but mass of LFOC and LFON in soil was greater with CTSM than ADSM. Mass of TOC, TON, LFOC and LFON in soil also increased with annual N fertilizer application compared to the control (by 3.2 Mg·C·ha-1 for TOC, 0.195 Mg·N·ha-1 for TON, 708 kg·C·ha-1 for LFOC and 45 kg·N·ha-1 for LFON). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of organic C and N in soil can be affected by swine manure rate and type, and N fertilization even after three years, most likely by influencing inputs of C and N through crop residue, and improve soil quality.
Mooleki, S.P., Schoenau, J.J., Hultgreen, G., Wen, G. and Charles, J.L. (2002) Effect of rate, frequency and method of liquid hog manure application on soil nitrogen availability, crop performance and N use efficiency in east-central Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 82, 457-467.
Mooleki, S.P., Schoenau, J.J., Hultgreen, G., Malhi, S.S. and Brandt, S. (2003) Soil and crop response to injected liquid hog manure on two Gray Luvisols. Proceedings of Soils and Crops Workshop. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Can-ada.
Schoenau, J.J., Mooleki, S.P., Qian, P. and Malhi, S.S. (2003) Balancing availability of nutrients in manured soils. Proceedings of Soils and Crops Workshop. University of Sas-katchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Schoenau J.J. and Assefa, B. (2004) Land application and handling of manure. In M. Amrani, M., Ed., Manure research findings and technologies. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Technical Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 97-140.
Janzen, H.H., Campbell, C.A., Brandt, S.A., Lafond, G.P. and Townley-Smith L. (1992) Light-fraction organic matter in soil from long term rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56, 1799-1806.
Izaurralde, R.C., Nyborg, M., Solberg, E.D., Janzen, H.H., Arshad, M.A., Malhi, S.S. and Molina-Ayala M. (1997) Carbon storage in eroded soils after five years of reclamation techniques. In: Lal, R., Kimble, J.M., Follett, R.F. and Stewart B.A., Eds., Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soil. Adv Soil Sci, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, U.S.A., 369-385.
Qian, P., Schoenau, J.J. and Karamanos, R.E. (1994) Simultaneous extraction of phosphorus and potassium with a new soil test: A modified Kelowna extraction. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 25, 627-635.
Combs, S.M., Denning, J.L. and Frank, K.D. (1998) Sulfate-sulfur. Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region. Missouri Agriculture Experiment Station Publication No. 221 (revised). Extension and Agricultural Information, I-98 Agricultural Building, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, U.S.A., 35-39.
Malhi, S.S. and Lemke, R. (2007) Tillage, crop residue and N fertilizer effects on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil quality and greenhouse gas emissions in the second 4-yr rotation cycle. Soil and Tillage Research 96, 269-283.
Malhi, S.S., Nyborg, M., Goddard, T. and Puurveen, D. (2011a) Long-term tillage, straw management and N fertilization effects on quantity and quality of organic C and N in a Black Chernozem soil. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems Online: 16 February 2011. DOI 10.1007/s10705-011-9424-6.
Malhi, S.S., Nyborg, M., Solberg, E.D., McConkey, B., Dyck, M. and Puurveen, D. (2011b) Long-term straw management and N fertilizer rate effects on quantity and quality of organic C and N, and some chemical properties in two contrasting soils in western Canada. Biology and Fertility of Soils 47, 785-800.
Malhi, S.S., Nyborg, M., Goddard, T. and Puurveen, D. (2010) Long-term tillage, straw and N rate effects on quantity and quality of organic C and N in a Gray Luvisol soil. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems Online: 16 September 2010. DOI 10.1007/s10705-010-9399-8.
Lorenz, R.J. (1977) Changes in root weight and distribution in response to fertilization and harvest treatment of mixed prairie. In: Marshall, J.K., Ed., The belowground ecosystem. Range Science Department, Science Series, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, U.S.A., 63-71.
Bremer, E., Janzen, H.H. and Johnston, A.M. (1994) Sensitivity of total, light fraction and mineralizable organic matter to management practices in a Lethbridge soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 74, 131-138.
Campbell, C.A., Janzen, H.H. and Juma, N.G. (1997) Case studies of soil quality in the Canadian Prairies: Long-term field experiments. In: Gregorih, E.G. and Carter, M.R., Eds., Soil Quality for Crop Production and Ecosystem Health. Chapter 17, Elsevier, New York, NY, U.S.A., 351-397.
Yang, S., Li, F., Malhi, S.S., Wang, P., Suo, D. and Wang, J. (2004) Long-term fertilization effects on crop yield and nitrate-N accumulation in soil in northwest China. Agronomy Journal 96, 1039-1049.
Yang, S., Malhi, S.S., Song, J.R., Yue, W.Y., Wang, J.G. and Guo, T.W. (2006) Crop yield, N uptake and nitrate-N accumulation in soil as affected by 23 annual applications of fertilizers and manure on in the rainfd region of northwestern China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 76, 81-94.
Mooleki, S.P., Malhi, S.S., Lemke, R., Schoenau, J.J., Lafond, G., Brandt, S., Hultgreen, G., Wang, H. and May, W.E. (2010) Effect of nitrogen management, and phosphorus placement on wheat production in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90, 319-337.
Heaney, D.J., Nyborg, M., Solberg, E.D., Malhi, S.S. and Ashworth, J. (1992) Overwinter nitrate loss and denitrification potential of cultivated soils in Alberta. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 24, 877-884.
Nyborg, M., Laidlaw, J.W., Solberg, E.D. and Malhi, S.S. (1997) Denitrification and nitrous oxide emissions from soil during spring thaw in a Malmo loam, Alberta. Cana-dian Journal of Soil Science 77, 53-160.
Malhi, S.S., Brandt, S.A., Lemke, R., Moulin, A.P. and Zentner, R.P. (2009) Effects of input level and crop diversity on soil nitrate-N, extractable P, aggregation, organic C and N, and N and P balance in the Canadian Prairie. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems Online. DOI 10.1007/s10705-008-9220-0.
Yang, S., Malhi, S.S., Li, F., Suo, D., Jia, Y. and Wang, J. (2007) Long-term effects of manure and fertilization on soil organic matter and quality parameters of a calcareous soil in northwestern China. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 170, 234-243.
Guillard, K., Griffin, G.F., Allinson, D.W., Yamartino, W.R., Rafey, M.M. and Pietryzk, S.W. (1995) Nitrogen utilization of selected cropping systems in the U.S. northeast. II. Soil profile nitrate distribution and accumulation. Agronomy Journal 87, 199-207.
Lemke, R.L., Izaurralde, R.C., Malhi, S.S., Arshad, M.A. and Nyborg, M. (1998) Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Boreal and Parkland regions of Alberta. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62, 1096-1102.