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Histamine Formation and Its Control in Cheese: A Review

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Histamine is one of the biogenic amine formed in the biological systems. Histamine is formed in fishes such as tuna and in the ripened cheeses. Fresh milk contains histamine in a low amount (<0.3) while cheeses may have the amount as high as 2500 ppm. Histamine content of the cheeses is affected by many factors. Ingestion of 70-1000 mg of histamine in a single meal is necessary to elicit any symptoms of toxicity. Histamine poisoning shows symptoms of rash, urticario, edema, and localized inflammation affect the cutareous system; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps in gastrointestinal track. Hypotension, headache, palpitations, tingling, flushing and burning sensations in the mouth are the other symptoms. Different biogenic amines are predominant in different kind of cheeses. HPLC, gas-liquid chromatography and TLC are used to determine bigenic amines. Many enzymatic methods including enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been developed to detect histamine in blood and tissues.


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