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Reannotation of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC13129 genome as a new approach to studying gene targets connected to virulence and pathogenicity in diphtheria


Keywords: Corynebacterium diphtheriae, diphtheria, reannotation, CRISPR, pathogenicity islands, genome

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nnotation of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC13129 genome as a new approach to studying gene targets connected to virulence and pathogenicity in diphtheria Original Research (2640) Total Article Views Authors: D'Afonseca V, Soares SC, Ali A, Santos AR, Pinto AC, Magalh es AAC, Faria CJ, Barbosa E, Guimar es LC, Eslab o M, Almeida SS, Abreu VAC, Zerlotini A, Carneiro AR, Cerdeira LT, Ramos RTJ, Hirata Jr R, Mattos-Guaraldi AL, Trost E, Tauch A, Silva A, Schneider MP, Miyoshi A, Azevedo V Published Date February 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 1 - 13 DOI: Received: 25 August 2011 Accepted: 14 October 2011 Published: 03 February 2012 Vívian D’Afonseca1,*, Siomar C Soares1,*, Amjad Ali1, Anderson R Santos1, Anne C Pinto1, Aryane AC Magalh es1, Cássio de Jesus Faria1, Eudes Barbosa1, Luis C Guimar es1, Marcus Eslab o2, Sintia S Almeida1, Vinicius AC Abreu1, Adhemar Zerlotini3,4, Adriana R Carneiro5, Louise T Cerdeira5, Rommel TJ Ramos5, Raphael Hirata Jr6, Ana L Mattos-Guaraldi6, Eva Trost7, Andreas Tauch7, Artur Silva5, Maria P Schneider5, Anderson Miyoshi1, Vasco Azevedo1 1Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; 3FIOCRUZ - CEBIO, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 4EMBRAPA - CNPTIA, Campinas, S o Paulo, Brazil; 5Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará, Brazil; 6Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 7Center for Biotechnology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The reannotation of genomes already on file is a new approach to discovering new genetic elements and to make the genomes more descriptive and current with relevant features regarding the organism’s lifestyle. Within this approach, the present study aimed to reannotate the genome of the Gram-positive human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria. The deposit of massive amounts of information linked to other species of the genus Corynebacterium has facilitated the updating of the genomic interpretation of this microorganism. Additionally, the emergence of invasive disease by nontoxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae and the reemergence of diphtheria in partially immunized populations have given impetus to new studies in relation to its structural and functional genome. Results: In relation to structural genomics, 23 coding regions (coding sequences) were deleted and 71 new genes were added to the genome annotation. Nevertheless, all the pseudogenes were validated and ten new pseudogenes were created. In relation to functional genomics, about 57% of the genome annotation was updated and became functionally more informative. The product descriptions of 41% (973 proteins) were updated. Among them, 370 that were previously annotated as “hypothetical proteins,” now have more informative descriptions. With the new annotation, the plasticity of the genome became e


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