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Levetiracetam Extended Release as Adjuvant Therapy for the Control of Partial-onset Seizures

DOI: 10.4137/JCNSD.S4126

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Extended release (XR) formulation of levetiracetam (LEV) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an add-on to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for adults with partial onset seizures. This is based on class-I evidence demonstrating significant seizure reduction in once daily dosing. Keppra-XR is marketed with the brand name of Keppra XR since 2008 (UCB Pharma). Its original immediate release (IR) formulation has been in the market since 2000. LEV has a unique molecular structure which is chemically unrelated to existing AEDs. The precise mechanism of action is unknown. Animal studies showed binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, thought to be involved in modulating synaptic neurotransmitter release. LEV-IR is proven effective as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonic seizures. It was shown to be equivalent to carbamazepine as first-line treatment for partial-onset seizures. The extended release formulation added advantages such as better tolerance and increased compliance.


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