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The Association of K76T Mutation in Pfcrt Gene and Chloroquine Treatment Failure in Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in a Cohort of Nigerian Children

PFCRT and DHFR-TS Sequences for Monitoring Drug Resistance in Adzopé Area of C te d’Ivoire After the Withdrawal of Chloroquine and Pyrimethamine

Chloroquine prophylaxis associated with high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Pfcrt K76T mutation in people with sickle-cell disease in Benin City, Nigeria

Detection of K76T Mutation in pfcrt Gene as an Applicable Ge-netic Marker for Prediction of Chloroquine Resistant falciparum Malaria in Isolates from an Endemic District of Iran

Rapid detection of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates by FRET and in vivo response to chloroquine among children from Osogbo, Nigeria

High frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance marker (pfcrt T76 mutation) in Yemen: An urgent need to re-examine malaria drug policy

A thirteen-year analysis of Plasmodium falciparum populations reveals high conservation of the mutant pfcrt haplotype despite the withdrawal of chloroquine from national treatment guidelines in Gabon

Identification of a Mutant PfCRT-Mediated Chloroquine Tolerance Phenotype in Plasmodium falciparum

Pfcrt haplotypes and the evolutionary history of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum

Chloroquine Clinical Failures in P. falciparum Malaria Are Associated with Mutant Pfmdr-1, Not Pfcrt in Madagascar

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Prevalence of the molecular marker of chloroquine resistance (pfcrt 76) in Nigeria 5 years after withdrawal of the drug as first-line antimalarial: A cross-sectional study

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Abstract:

Background. In line with the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline on chloroquine (CQ) resistance, CQ was withdrawn as the first-line antimalarial drug in Nigeria in 2005 as a result of widespread resistance. It was expected that its sensitivity and clinical usefulness ould be restored with time. This study therefore aimed to determine the level of CQ resistance in Nigerian children aged less than 60 months. Methods. We monitored the resistance pattern 5 years after withdrawal of CQ, using the pfcrt K76T mutation as a molecular marker for CQ resistance. Results. Of 98 Plasmodium falciparum-positive blood samples, 95 (96.9%) showed the K76T mutation. Twenty-seven (27.6%) of the children had been treated with CQ at home before presentation at the clinic, while 50 (51.0%) had taken other antimalarials. Conclusion. Our results indicate that there is an urgent need to re-evaluate antimalarial drug policy in Nigeria, especially when 27.6% of our study population still use CQ at home despite its withdrawal as first-line antimalarial. This may require effective legislation against the manufacture, importation and use of CQ in Nigeria, if the purpose behind its withdrawal is to be achieved.

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