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Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Root and Leaf Extracts of Calotropis procera

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Phytochemical and antibacterial properties of water, methanol and ethanol extracts obtained from root and leaf of Calotropis procera were investigated. Antibacterial growth inhibition was determined using Ditch method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyrogenes. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and cardiac glycosides, balsams and volatile oil and steroids with higher amount in water extracts. The concentration of the phytochemical constituents were in the order of water > methanol > ethanol. Water extracts showed broad spectrum activity against the tested organisms at concentrations of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg/ml. Methanol and ethanol extracts did not show a significant effect against the tested organisms at 120 mg/ml as compared with those of tetracycline. The result of this study validates the use of water extract of this species in ethnomedicine and could provide a lead in the isolation of antibacterial agents from water extracts of Calotropis procera.


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