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Human Subtilase SKI-1/S1P Is a Master Regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a Potential Host Cell Target for Developing Indirect-Acting Antiviral Agents

DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002468

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Abstract:

HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1) – or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development of novel broad-spectrum biopharmaceuticals that could lead to novel indirect-acting antiviral options with the current standard of care.

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