In this paper a relic and edaphic (azonal) forest association new to science (Paeonio banaticae-Quercetum cerridis) is described and characterized. This association is compared by traditional phytosociological methods to associations with which it is in physical contact in the Eastern Mecsek Hills (Southwest Hungary). Stands of Paeonio banaticae-Quercetum cerridis occur on steep slopes with southern exposition between 280-640 m. The forest soil contains a large amount of rocks and rubble, and is slowly drifting. The microclimate of the forest is conducive to the survival of many species with submediterranean distribution. One of them is the endemic Paeonia banatica whose largest populations occur in this forest type. The new association is placed in the alliance Quercion farnetto I. Horvat 1954 and suballiance Quercenion farnetto Kevey in Kevey & Borhidi 2005.