The identification and examination of sources of external loading are important pressure indicators for studying the nutrient balance and eutrophication of water bodies. Focusing on the eastern Gulf of Finland, this paper investigates and decomposes the sources of phosphorus, a limiting factor of eutrophication of the Gulf and its accompanying Neva Bay, and of nitrogen as pressure indicators. The eastern Gulf of Finland's catchment basin represents Europe's largest freshwater basin. Both point and non-point sources of pollution, as well as their current and possible withdrawals from the watershed's nutrient loading, are considered. The investigation identifies poultry plants and animal husbandry enterprises in the coastal watershed as critical contributing sources to eutrophication in the eastern Gulf of Finland. Analyses based on such pressure indicators can help to contribute directly to future policy-making as concerns environmental protection measures and water resources planning in the eastern Gulf of Finland and other regions.